Main links: Title page Introduction & guides INDEXES_chapters_&_genera Open PDF printout of this file

Salticidae (Araneae) genera of the world
- an atlas*

(unfinished manuscript)

by Jerzy Prószyński
Professor Emeritus, Museum and Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
ul. Wilcza 63, 00-679 Warsaw, POLAND

After first thirty years of work, visit in MCZ-Harvard-1990

Motto: [papers of Prószyński] “…should be ignored by the community” because “…brings nothing but chaos in salticid systematicsand ------------- see - Kropf & twelve intellectuals, `2019

ABSTRACT. The aim of this paper is to display, within seconds, the most useful diagnostic characters of ca. 400 recognizable genera of Salticidae, on the background of the whole diversity of the family. There is a possibility to follow that, also within seconds, by examination of diversity of ca. 4800 recognizable species of these genera (which could be further followed by network of links to rich data of relational database including: geographical distribution, contents of collections, contents of publications, etc). The grouping of these genera is not to demonstrate phylogeny or other fancy schemes, but they are assembled by similarities in palps, spermathecae and ducts, useful for practical identification. Since my research are "..nothing but scientific malpractice" (see motto above), this paper will be read only by the most intelligent and independent thinking arachnologist, which will understand perfectly the second bottom of this text.
To facilitate orientation in individual and temporary nomenclature of groups and genera in this paper, the names differing from those commonly used, are written in CAPITAL LETTERS. Some of these groups may signalize evolutionary affinities, but aims of the paper do not include establishing formal phylogeny. The author trusts that intelligent reader will have no trouble of separating significant conclusions from mere hypotheses. The translation of names and nomenclatural data, used in this Database with those used in routine publications, could be found with help of the World Spider Catalog (beware of different convention, also numerous uncorrected identifications and synonyms in that source).
The material presented in this paper is very incomplete and often of poor quality, not because of bad choice by the author, but results from incompleteness of data in literature. The readers are exhorted to not believe any data, here, or in the literature, without verifying them, the data not sufficiently documented may be very well fantasies of their authors, or be based on insufficient information. This papers contains delimitations of some new taxa, and some new concepts, they may become available when published in regular and accepted periodicals, and preferably signed by new, not discriminated authors. Reacting to suggestions from article of intellectuals quoted above in the Motto, this work disregards some less important traditional customs of paper editing, the intelligent reader will understand that.
Finally I must apologize for the unfinished form of the present manuscript - I am not sure whether my time left will suffice to complete it
, so I am making it available as it is now, and intend to complement it and edit in the Internet. I may add that the work is delayed by some ten months as a consequence of joyous publication of the Kropf & twelve intellectuals, 2019. Everything has its prices - the delay and uncertainties of completing this survey it is one of these.

Rent of domain and hosting of "" and "" is paid until October 2030, and therefore will be available as long.


Operational suggestions - how to use this atlas

This paper implements practical solutions of the Pragmatic Classification: clarity of documentation and quick and effective searching of identificatory characters. The diagnostic characters are expressed as precise drawings and photographs, to be compared directly with features of observed specimens (living or preserved) or with existing illustrations. It is hoped that direct comparison will appear the quickest method of orientation in enormous material of ca. 480 cognizable genera representing diversity of ca. 4800 recognizable species (the comparative charts of the latter in the Salticidae Database are accessible at or by links at each genus).
Practically, by clicking on link on title page of this "Salticidae (Araneae) genera of the world - an atlas" part of Database (similar arrangements work in other parts of Database) you enter the first page, with line of links at the top - click at "INDEXES_chapters_&_genera to find INDEX of links to all genera and all chapters - these yield, within seconds, characters of each genus (links marked Q [for QUICK] operate particularly fast). Additional links at each genus entry lead to survey of all recognizable species - and these are followed by wealth of relational MSQL database information).
Parallel way of searching for identificatory characters is following Guide in the Introduction & guides chapter below - each set of pictures leads to chapters containing genera with system of links, inside chapter you have to scroll screen to find most similar genus entry. Some characters are ambiguous (there are no better in the literature) or misleading, which may require repeating scrolling of other possibly relevant chapters.
This work experiments with combinations of characters and rearrangements of placements of genera for the most convincing expression of similarities and easiest identification. Experiments involve frequent changes of group names, impracticable to treat each time as formal names, valid for next centuries. For this reason the Pragmatic Classification employs informal, temporary names of groups of genera - linked with other name systems by genera included, and ultimately translatable into future system of Salticidae, hopefully valid for centuries. These informal names are recognizable by being written in CAPITAL letters .
In my opinion this identificatory system contains many shortages, but ALL remaining systems are still worse. The user is invited to find by practice whether the above opinion is wrong.

*FOOTNOTE. Present paper constitutes partial publication of sections of the Internet "Monograph of Salticidae (Araneae) of the World 1995-2016", parts I & II by Prószyński (2016a, b), available at: and respectively. Permissions of illustrations used in this paper are displayed in the above mentioned Internet "Monograph ...". To ensure demanded uniformity of quotations taxonomic references are copied from the World Spider Catalog ver. 20.5.

 Chapter 0
Introduction and Guide to Genera


Family Salticidae (Araneae), distributed over continents and archipelagoes, differentiated during their long history of evolution, over space, by migrations and extinction, contains at present ca. 4800 recognizable species (6169 including unrecognizable), divided preliminarily into over 650 genera, arranged into system of taxa for smooth storage and retrieval of relevant information, including diagnostic characters for taxa recognition. Such system covering all organisms, including also spiders, was initiated by Carl Linnaeus (Karl Linne) over 250 years ago. Nowadays scientific system of jumping spiders - Salticidae - is very complicated and is known in many versions, created and endlessly changed by competing authors. One of criteria of a good system is operational practicability, difficult to achieve when our knowledge is full of gaps, documentation of taxa is imprecise and unverifiable. Success of story writers depends from smoothness of reading of their works, so they are apt to enrich facts by imagination, to avoiding inconvenient facts. It is only natural that scientists try to cover weaknesses of their reasoning by somewhat similar solutions. However in science mistreatment of facts is unpardonable. Taxonomists have right to receive clear texts, based on verified and verifiable characters.

The present work concentrates on recognition of genera, the most important, but also difficult step in identification of Salticidae. Species share, by definition, part of characters of their genus, their identification and separation is based on different kind of characters, of which most important seems to be color photographs of live specimens. Genera are most numerous taxa a taxonomist must dealt with, in addition characters of particular genera tends to be developed parallel in different evolutionary lines, in part due to influence of similar environments occurring in various parts of the world. Results of grouping of genera into taxa of higher rank depends of characters they are based on, so that is why there are so many variants of groupings. The present survey of genera is based on the Pragmatic Classification, a modern version of traditional classification with own aims and methodology, different from molecular phylogeny developed for Salticidae within last twenty years by Maddison and coauthors (see for example paper of 2015). In spite of their autonomy both systems are mutually auxiliary "Hilfswissenschaftten" and understanding of their relationships may promote development of both.

Early trials to construct a system of Salticidae: A - genera arranged into three columns based on types of cheliceral dentition, with same characters repeated in each column - by Simon (1901-1903), modified by Petrunkevitch (1928), B - brilliant idea - lets' base system on palps structure - by Prószyński (1971).
SOURCE: Prószyński (1971) Arachnologorum Congressus Internationalis V. Brno: 213-217.

The placement of genera of into higher units (subfamilies, etc.) were attempted several times in the history, often clumsy and inconvenient in usage, due to gaps in knowledge. These gaps were filled up by variety of characters of uncertain value, and "rounded up" by fantasies of numerous authors. In practice none of them was satisfactorily usable for identification of genera.
The Pragmatic Classification, developed by Prószyński on the basis of Salticidae Database 1995-2016, first proposed in papers of 2016a, 2017b and gradually improved since, concentrates on a few tested, tangible and noticeable morphological characters, precisely documented by drawings and photos.

Effective storage and retrieval of data pertaining to ca. 4800 recognizable species of Salticidae requires arrangement into organized hierarchical system of taxa, from families down to species. Since establishing practical system demands commanding knowledge of the whole fauna of Salticidae worldwide, which nobody commands as yet, the existing systems are trials, based on inadequate basis of data. Yet existing preliminary systems, starting from that by Simon (1901-1903), with subsequent partial amendments, are imposed by enterprising authors and editors as a sort of straight jacket, in part useful, in part stifling understanding and research. To have progress in searching for an adequate system, one need a freedom of verifying premises and experimenting with syntheses of newly acquired data. To facilitate such search, without destroying prematurely establishing traditions, the Pragmatic Classification invented temporary and informal grouping of genera. This survey of genera of Salticidae uses temporarily informal units SUPRAGROUP of genera, GROUP of genera (= subfamilies) and SUBGROUP of genera, with names recognizable from those used by other authors by being written in CAPITAL letters. The experimental classification could be finally translated into whatever system will be adopted in the future. Usage of individual system, even if limited to experimental only, provokes resistance and sharp exchange of views - full review of published different opinion in this case is available at

An interesting new approach, developed for Salticidae within last twenty years by Maddison (see for instance 2015) and his collaborators is phylogeny based on gene sequencing, complemented by adopted elements of the Simon's system and various literature proposals contributed in world's literature since.The present work contains numerous links to grouping of genera in this system in the Salticidae Database (marked by letter "M" at each genus), short preliminary comparison of systems of Salticidae is given at - but I cannot pretend to give final evaluation of that. It seems to me, however that there is deep difference in aims of purely identificatory system, like the Pragmatic Classification and the phylogeny Maddison' system, presumably addressed to arachnologists commanding identificatory experience acquired from other sources.

Guide to informal supragroups and groups of genera Salticidae

This chapter attempts to help in orientation in morphological diversity of ca. 4800 recognizable species of the world. User is advised to compare main characters (palps and spermathecae) of the identified specimen with exemplary drawings shown in the right column of the chart below, and then go to the chapters dealing with particular supragroups and groups of genera.

Symbols and links of supragroups
- characters or their variants mutual to all taxa within each group (see chart below)





not classified
"Pending placement"

Guide to informal groups of genera of Salticidae within supragroups

I - MALE. Embolus constitutes direct extension of tegular tegument of bulbus, antero-lateral angle of spermatofor emerges parallel to embolus.
FEMALE. Spermathecae and ducts simple, both sclerotized.



I - Informal supragroupCHRYSILLOIDA





Representative genera: A, G - Hasarius adansoni, B, H - Phintella bifurcilinea, C - Chrysilla lauta, D, I - Icius hamatus, E, J - Heliophanus cupreus, F, K - H. curvidens, P- Q - Orienticius vulpes.
SOURCES of illustrations displayed in this GUIDE are quoted in relevant chapters, further in the text.
II - MALE. Embolus arises from bulbus (beneath tegulum) and runs parallel to bulbus, in some cases encircling it. No visible central loop of spermatophor.
FEMALE. Internal structure of epigyne: ducts make complicated loops, in some genera soft walled, in other heavily sclerotized.

II - Informal supragroupHYLLOIDA





Representative genera: A, F - Hyllus semicupreus, B, G - Pellenes nigrociliatus, C, H - Pelleenes lapponicus, D, I - Habronatus tarsalis, E, J - Marusyllus mongolicus. K.Q - Afraflacilla tamaricis, L, R - Evaneg nenilini, M, S - Evalba albaria, N - Evacin kochii, O, T - Yaginumaella striatipes, U - Bianor albobimaculatus.
SOURCES of illustrations displayed in this GUIDE are quoted in relevant chapters, further in the text.

III - Cheliceral tooth usually comb-like (several cusps arising from mutual sclerotized basis) either on single cheliceral edge or both
MALE. Embolus arises from bulbus, spermophor makes usually distinct loop in the center of bulbus,.
FEMALE. Spermathecae consists of two swellings, sometimes developed as chambers, ducts joining them at narrower connector between swelling, ducts less sclerotized but not membranous, making loops.

III - Informal supragroupAMYCOIDA





Representative genera: A - Amycus flavicomis, G - Amycus [?] flavicomis [mismatched & misidentified?], B-C, H - SITTIFLOR zimmermanni, D, I - Sarinda silvatica, E, J - Corcovatella aemulatrix, F - Tartamura adfectuosa, R - Gedea flavogularis, S - Colonus puerperus T - Colonus - loop of spermatofor.
SOURCES of illustrations displayed in this GUIDE are quoted in relevant chapters, further in the text.

IV - Majority of species display mimicry to various ants or other insects, but in some genera that is not developed.
Delimited by exceptional internal structure of epigyne with striking pair of parallel, sclerotized "pipes" like spermathecae, running medially along epigyne, with complicated membranous ducts (visible stained on cleared preparation) ,
MALE. Palps relatively uniform within groups - see respective drawings

IV - Informal supragroup



Representative genera: A-C - Myrmarachne tristis, D - Myrmarachne cornuta, E - Emeretonius exasperans, F - MYRMAVOLA galianoae, G - Myrmage gedongensis, H- Myrmatheca alticephalon, I - Toxeus maxillosus, J - Myrmarachne assimilis , K - Myrmarachne biseratensis , L - .Ligonipes lacertosus , M - Belippo meridionalis epigyne, N - Belippo meridionalis palp, O - Leviea lornae epigyne, P - Leviea lornae palp.
SOURCES of illustrations displayed in this GUIDE are quoted in relevant chapters, further in the text.
V - MALE. Embolus sitting on inflatable distal haematodocha (visibble after expanding bulbus), which seems to increase nobility of embolus during insemination.*
Spermathecae and ducts differs in each group (see in respective chapters), generally ducts are hard but less sclerotized than spermathecae.

V - Informal supragroup EUOPHRYOIDA



*FOOTNOTE. Inflatable distal haematodocha was initially observed in DENDRYPHANTINES and EUOPHRYINES, now confirmed (or supposed, pending confirmation) in several groups of genera. It is associated with various secondary features (like coiled embolus and meandering spermatofor). Broad occurrence and diversity make it convenient structural character for delimiting group of genera. Parallel, its occurrence in one of the oldest genera known - Hispo, permits hypothesize that "distal-haematodochoida" may constitute a block of similar, possibly related genera of Salticidae.

Representative genera: A - Tomomingi wastani, B-D - Hispo striolata embolus and distal haematodocha, E-F - Euophrys frontalis, G - Euophrys petrensis SEM, H-J - Ballus chalybeius, K - Variratina minuta, L - Dendryphantes hastatus, M-N - Rhene flavigera, O - Messua felix from Hawaii, P-Q - Phlegra fasciata, R - Phlegra amitai, S - Phlegra v-epigynalis (note scent exuding duct).
SOURCES of illustrations displayed in this GUIDE are quoted in relevant chapters, further in the text.

These groups of genera do not share mutual characters, their placement is uncertain. For characters of particular groups - see relevant chapters.




VI - Genera not classified into supragroup




Representative genera: A-B - Menemerus semilimbatus, C-D - Synageles dalmaticus.
Representative genera: A-B - Cyrba algerina, C-D - Astia hariola.
Representative genera: A-C - Diolenius phrynoides, D-E - Chalcolecta dimidiata. width="700"
Representative genera: A-B - Sobasina coriacea - palp, spermatheca & habitus (male & female) , C-D - Sobasina paradoxa habitus & spermatheca (owing to minute size examination of genitals require higher magnification)
Representative genera: A-B - Lapsias canandea, C-D - Tabuina varirata.
Representative genera: A-H - Corusca gracilis.
SOURCES of illustrations displayed in this GUIDE are quoted in relevant chapters, further in the text.


ATTENTION: genera like Athamas, Leptathamas (EUOPHRYINES), Orthrus (ASTIAINES) also have eyes arranged in four lines, but with palps and epigyne incompatible with LYSSOMANOIDA, should be reclassified elsewhere.

VII - Eyes arranged into four rows in both sexes (not exclusive character of this group, sporadically in other groups and in some intermediate state)
MALE - complicated palp structure
FEMALE - epigyne diverse, in some complicated, in other simple,
poorly known


VII - Informal supragroup
- NON[?]-Salticidae





Representative genera: A-B - Lyssomanes viridis Lyssomanes jemineus
Representative genera: A-B - Goleba lyra, C-D - Goleba puella, E- Hindumanes karnatakaensis.
Representative genera: A-B - Onomastus complexipalpis, C-D - Onomastus danum, E - Onomastus simoni. SOURCE: A-D - Prószyński & Deeleman-Reinhold, Arthropoda Selecta, 22: 2013: 134, 135, f. 97, 102-103, 107, E - Zabka, 1985. Annales Zoologici, 39: 422, f. 381-384
SOURCES of illustrations displayed in this GUIDE are quoted in relevant chapters, further in the text.
VIII - Genera pending placement


See diagnostic drawings of these genera
in the chapter "Pending placement"