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Salticidae (Araneae) genera of the world - an atlas
(unfinished manuscript)
by Jerzy Prószyński

Professor Emeritus, Museum and Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
ul. Wilcza 63, 00-679 Warsaw, POLAND

e-mail: jerzy.proszynski@wp.pl

 Chapter 8
EVARCHINES

informal group of genera

Version May 20th, 2020


symbol of the supragroup HYLLOIDA

Composition and searching on this page: Baryphas Colopsus Evalba Evacin Evarcha s. l. Evarcha s. s. Evaneg Evawes Ghumattus Hasarina Hasarinella, Nigorella Pancorius Pharacocerus Pseudamycus

Examples of main diagnostic characters of EVARCHINES
A
Diagnostic characters of five genera resulting from splitting of the former genus Evarcha Simon, 1902 sensu lato. A - Evarcha falcata, B -Evacin kochi, C- Evaneg praeclara, D - Evalba albaria. Habitus of live: E - Evawes patagiata, F - Evarcha falcata, G - Evaneg praeclara, J - Evawes jucunda.
SOURCE: see below, in the text of this chapter. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy

Gen. Baryphas Simon, 1902
Type species Baryphas ahenus (6 recognizable species)
See more species at Baryphas-Q+M
also Polemus-Q+M

A-D - Baryphas ahenus, E - Baryphas jullieni, F - Baryphas chrysochirus [- syn. n. for Polemus c.], G - Baryphas albicinctus.
SOURCE. A-C, E-F - Proszynski J. 1987. Atlas ...: 5-6, .D - Azarkina, Foord Zootaxa 3686(2): 166, f. 2-17, ©Magnolia Press
, G - Wesołowska, Russel-Smith Ann. zool. 61(3): 561-563, f 30-32.
All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy

Gen. Colopsus Simon, 1902 - gen. reinstated
Type species Colopsus cancellatus Simon, 1902 (1 recognizable species)
See more species at Evarcha (flavocincta-group)-Q
[a WSC synonym Evacin cancellata Prószyński, 2018b = Colopsus cancellatus Simon, 1902 (Blick & Marusik, 2018: 237)
- amendment accepted for this single species, but not for the whole genus Evacin as they proposed ]

Colopsus cancellatus, syntypes.
SOURCE: Prószyński, 1984a: 51. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

COMMENT: In the nomenclatorical conflict over placement of Colopsus a temporary solution may be usage of epigyne and palp differences of the type species to revive genus Colopsus as different from Evacin - until more data on appearance of live species, as well as internal structure of epigyne will become known.

Species of Evarcha s. l.
See more species at Evarcha-Q

Remarks. The diversity among over 80 species of Evarcha s. l., distributed over six continents, is so extensive that exceed possibility of delimit them with single, or a few precise diagnostic characters. Efforts to subdivide that genus into groups of species, or subgenera, have failed because World Spider Catalog disregards intrageneric subdivision. After considerations and trials lasting six decades I have decided formally, in 2018, to subdivide that genus into five more uniform genera. To retain some traces of previous composite character of that group of species I have applied to them experimentally new concept of "serial acronymic names" (consisting of part of previous names Eva- and another part derived from a representative species, or other meaningful words, for example Eva-CINcta), suggesting bonds with previous name s. l. and permitting to keep new genera together in checklists and references. This move was met by fierce opposition of arachnologists having little experience with worldwide Evarcha s.l., supposedly motivated by personal rivalry and enmity. The story is extensively described in a separate paper of Prószyński (2019) The truth on Evarcha (Araneae, Salticidae). I second, hereby, my previous decision on splitting Evarcha s. l. and name resulting smaller genera with acronymic names beginning with "Eva-". I yield to the postulated usage name of the Colopsus from Madagascar, limited at present to a slightly different, single species (and it's possible, undescribed relatives).The definitions of resulting genera are displayed in this paper.

Revisions of insufficiently known genera often leave species of uncertain relations, there is a practice of editors of the WSC editors to merge them arbitrarily with any genus available, without proving their real relationships. This misleads next students, making them blind to unresolved problems. It seems better to leave such species temporarily in undefined state - for instance with their latest genus name marked with quotation marks and with questioning mark. I propose to use that solution for the following species of uncertain position. I use that solution for the following species of Evarcha s. l., left provisionally in "Evarcha" s. l. pending further classificatory research (see Prószyński 2018b: 155-156 f. 10aA-R).
"Evarcha" acuta Wesolowska 2006 (Fig. 15A), "Evarcha" annae (Peckham & Peckham, 1903) (Fig. 15B), "Evarcha" aposto Wesolowska, Tomasiewicz, 2008 (Fig. 15C ), "Evarcha" certa Rollard & Wesolowska, 2002 (Fig. 15D), "Evarcha" chappuisiLessert, 1925 (Fig. 15E), "Evarcha" crinita Logunov, Zamanpoore 2005 (Fig. 15G),  "Evarcha" digitata Peng X., Li S, 2002 (Fig. 15I), "Evarcha" gausapata (Thorell, 1890) (Fig,  15F),  "Evarcha" grandis Wesolowska & Russel-Smith, 2011 (Fig, 15J),  "Evarcha" idanrensis Wesolowska & Russell-Smith, 2011 (Fig. 15L), "Evarcha" improcera Wesolowska & van Harten, 2007 (Fig. 15M),  "Evarcha" russellsmithi Wesolowska & Russel-Smith 2011 (Fig. 15K),  "Evarcha" squamulata (Simon, 1902) (Fig, 15P), "Evarcha" sichuanensisPeng, Xie & Kim, 1993 (Fig. 15Q), "Evarcha" vittula Haddad & Wesolowska, 2011 (Fig. 15O).

Removal from Evarcha
"Evarcha" wenxianensisTang & Yang, 1995 = Yaginumaella wenxianensis (Tang & Yang, 1995) (Fig, 15R).

Misunderstandings on genus Evarcha s. l.

The above facsimile provides insight into official views of the Editorial Board and their associates (see Kropf et al (2019) and several papers spontaneously published by employees and associates of that Board). I am not sure whether authors of these papers do really understand taxonomic problems involved. Especially that nobody even tried to consult me about the above and other similar cases. I declare hereby that I am willing to supply information and details if will be asked to. As temporary measure I repeat in this paper fragments of definitions and text from my 2018 paper, the respected WSC editors have been kind to disregard.
Splitting of genus Evarcha s. l. into genera Evarcha s. s., Evacin, Evalba, Evaneg, Evawes and Colopsus was necessitated by worldwide revision of all 82 recognizable species of the genus (including 34 species known from both sexes and 48 known from single sex only).

Gen. Evarcha s. str.
Type species Evarcha falcata (8 recognizable species)
See more species at Evarcha s.s.

A-B, E-F - Evarcha falcata, C - Evarcha hoyi, D, G-H - Evarcha proszynski [Evarcha proszynski ? or hoyi] Oregon, I-J - Evarcha arcuata, K-L - Evarcha laetabunda, M-N - Evarcha michailovi, O-P - Evarcha arcuata, female & male, Q - Evarcha michailovi, female.
SOURCE: A, I - Zabka 1997. Fauna Polski: 49, figs 113-118; f. 99-106, B - Proszynski 1991: ff. 1341.1-4, C - Paquin & Dupérré, 2003: 194, f. 2166-2168, D - Marusik & Logunov, 1998: 99, f. 3, 9-11, 18; 21-22, E-F - ©Photo J. Lissner, G-H - ©Photo T. Shahan, K-N - Logunov 1992b. Arthropoda Selecta, 34, f 2a-b, 3a-b, O-Q © Photo Schaefer https://kleinesganzgross.de/gallery.php. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

Gen. EVACIN Prószynski, 2018
Type species Evarcha kochi (18 recognizable species)
See more species at
Evacin-Q , see also Colopsus

A - Evacin kochi from Java, B-C - same, from Lombok - Kute, D - Evacin reiskindi, E- Evacin flavocincta, F- Evacin pulchella (Burma: Tharrawady, Oates: Mus. Stockholm, No: 1785), G-H - Evacin kirghisica, I - Evacin acuta, J - Evacin alba (comb. of Viciria a.), K - Evacin flavocincta (identification by habitus), L-N - Evacin besar (from Borneo: Sarawak), O-Q - Evacin cf. infrastriata.
SOURCE: A, E - Zabka 1985. Ann. zool., 39, 11: 224, f. 187-192, B-D - Prószyński, Deeleman-Reinhold, 2010. Arthr. sel. 19(3): 166, f 62-69, F- Proszynski 1984a. Atlas rysunków diagnostycznych mniej znanych Salticidae (Araneae). Zeszyty Naukowe Wyższej Szkoły Rolniczo-Pedagogiczne,  Siedlce : 49, G-H - Rakov S.Y. 1997. Arthr. Sel. 6 (1/2):figs 10-13, I - Prószyński 1984a. Atlas rysunków diagnostycznych mniej znanych Salticidae (Araneae). Zeszyty Naukowe Wyższej Szkoły Rolniczo-Pedagogicznej, Siedlce: 129, J - Peckham & Peckham, 1903: 234, pl. 26, f. 8 and by Lessert R. 1925b. Rev. suisse zool., 32 (21): 354-357, figs 16A-b, K - ©Photo H.K. Tang , L-N - Prószyński, 2018b: Ecologica Montenegrina 16: 145, f. 8A-H - ©Photo by P. Koomen, O - ©Photo I. Macaulay or R. Whyte, P-Q - ©Photo R. Whyte. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy..

Gen. Evalba Prószynski, 2018
Type species Evarcha albaria (8 recognizable species)
See more species at Evalba-Q

L
A-B, E - Evalba albaria - palp and tibial apophysis, epigyne in ventral and posterior view, as well as internal structure of epigyne (very strongly sclerotized), C-D - Evalba paralbaria, F-H - Evalba selenaria, I - Evalba wulingensis - palp reconstructed (expanded in the original drawing, bulbus turned 90 degrees).
SOURCE: A-B - Bohdanowicz, Proszynski 1987: 53-55, ff. 27-34, C-D - Peng, Xie, Xiao 1993: 71-73, ff. 203-210, E - ©Photo Ono, Ikeda, Kono 2009: 576, pl 46, f. 6, F - Suguro & Yahata, 2013. A. arachn. 61(1): 1-4, f 1-9, I - Song et al., 1999: 510 (palp reconstructed (in the original drawing bulbus is expanded and turned 90 degrees). All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

Gen. Evaneg Prószynski, 2018
Type species Evaneg negevensis( 10 recognizable species)
See more species at Evaneg-Q

A-D - Evaneg negevensis: palp, epigyne and its internal structure, as well as dorsal pattern, E-G - Evaneg praeclara, H-I - Evaneg cf. praeclara from Yemen, J-K - Evaneg nenilini, L-N - Evaneg sp. Judean Foothills, P-Q - Evaneg nepos, R - Evaneg pileckii, S - Evaneg nigricans.
SOURCE: A-D - Proszynski 2000. Arthr. Sel. 8(4): 240-242, figs 37-44, D - ©Photo A. Weinstein,. E-G - Proszynski 2003. Ann. zool.: 62-63, figs 205, 207, 211-214, 216 , H-I - ©Photo B. Knoflach, : J-K - Proszynski 2003a. Annales zoologici.: 175, figs 721-722, L-G - ©Photo A. Weinstein, P-Q - Proszynski. Annales zoologici, 2003: 58-59, figs 201, 217-219, 222-223. R - Proszynski 2000. Arthropoda Selecta, 8(4): 243-242, figs 45-47, S - Proszynski 2003a. Annales zoologici: 64, figs 236-237. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.
A-B - Evaneg aegyptiaca, C-D - Hyllus aegyptiacus.
SOURCE: A, C-D - Denis, J. (1947a). 78, pl. 5, f. 14-15, Prószyński, J. (2018b). . Ecologica Montenegrina 16: 151, f. 10L-M, N. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

COMMENT, Revision of mismatched male and female of "Neaetha aegyptiaca", of which paratype female from Wadi Sitra become holotype of a new species - Evaneg aegyptiaca, while male holotype from Siwa belongs apparently to Hyllus aegyptiacus (species classification require confirmation on new specimen). Collecting places of the above species are located about 1000 km apart. Classification of the second female paratype from Gara were not checked. The case was analyzed in Prószyński, J. (2018b: !51).

Gen. Evawes Prószyński, 2018
Type species Evawes patagiata (21 recognizable species)
See more species at patagiata-gr or Evawes-Q

/
A-C, L-O - Evawes patagiata, D-E - Evawes jucunda, F-K - Evawes jucunda: - male from S France (FH-) , female from Sardinia (I-K), L-O - Evawes patagiata color pattern of males from Israel.
SOURCE: A-E - Proszynski. Ann. zool., 2003: 59-61, figs 200, 224-226, 229-230; 64, figs 227-228, 234-235, F-K - ©Photo M. Schaefer,
L-O - ©Photo A. Weinstein. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.


ATTENTION: identification of photographs F-O not confirmed by documentation of genitalic structures. QUESTION: why so big difference between male from S. France (F-H) and from Israel (L-O)? Is that due to species differences, or may be seasonal change related to mating? This question may be solved by observations of live specimens, from last ecdysis to actual mating, and should be confirmed by palp documentation. REMARK: change of coloration during maturity may concern also other genera, as observed, for instance. in immature males of Philaeus chrysops having dark brown abdomen, like female, mature males have abdomen bright red, with black median streak, the latter contoured by white line in some specimens (individual or geographic variation?).

A-B - Evawes bakorensis, C-E - Evawes culicivora.
SOURCE: A-B - Wesołowska, Russel-Smith Ann. zool. 61(3): 568-570, f 52-56, C-D - Wesolowska & Jackson, 2003: 335, f. 1-20, E - ©Photo by R. R. Jackson. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

A-E - Evawes longula.
SOURCE: A-C - Davies Todd, Zabka 1989. 27 (2): 250, pl 54, D-E - ©Photo R. Whyte.
All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

Misplaced or uncertain species of Evarcha s. l.
pending reclassification
See more data at Evarcha pending classification and -Q

Diagnostic characters of species left temporarily in the genus Evarcha s.l. pending classification. A - "Evarcha" [?] acuta Wesolowska 2006, B"Evarcha" [?] annae, C -"Evarcha" [?] , D - "Evarcha" [?] certa, E "Evarcha" [?] chappuisi, F - "Evarcha" [?] gausapata, G"Evarcha" [?] crinita, I"Evarcha" [?] digitata, J - "Evarcha" [?] grandis, K "Evarcha" [?] russellsmithi, L"Evarcha" [?] idanrensis, M "Evarcha" [?] improcera, O"Evarcha" [?] vittula, P - "Evarcha" [?] squamulata, Q"Evarcha" [?] sichuanensis. REMOVAL FROM EVARCHA: R - Evarcha wenxianensis [=Yaginumaella].
SOURCE: A - Wesolowska 2006b. Afr. Ent., 14 (2): 230- 231, f 23-25, B -(Peckham & Peckham, 1903) Proszynski 1987a: 39 , C - Wesolowska, Tomasiewicz, 2008 J. Afrotr. Zool., 4: 10, 36-42, D - Wesołowska, Tomasiewicz, 2008. J. Afrotr. Zool., 4: 12-13, 49-51, E-F - Proszynski J. 1984a. Atlas rysunków diagnostycznych mniej znanych Salticidae (Araneae). Zeszyty Naukowe Wyższej Szkoły Rolniczo-Pedagogiczne,  Siedlce : 48, G - Logunov, Zamanpoore 2005. Bull. British arachn. Soc. 13(6): 218- 219, f 24-25 , H - Song, Zhu, Chen 1999: 510, figs 294K-L, I - Peng X.[ian-jin], Li S.[hu]-Q.[iang] 2002e. A. zootax. Sin. 27, 3: 470, figs 1A-D, J - Wesolowska W., A. Russel-Smith 2011. Ann. zool. 61(3): 570- 571, f 57-58, K - Wesolowska W., A. Russel-Smith 2011. Ann. zool. 61(3) 571, f 59- 61, L - Wesołowska, Tomasiewicz, 2008. J. Afrotr. Zool., 4: 18, f 66-71, photo 211, M - Wesolowska W., van Harten A. 2007. F . Arabia, 23: 202- 203, f 32-34 , N - Proszynski J. 1992a. Ann. zool., 44, 8: 93, fig. 8-12 , O - Haddad, Wesołowska 2011. © Afr. Invertebr. 52(1): 66- 69, f 39, 48-50, P - Szuts T. 2005 [2007]. Opusc. zool., 36: 92- 93, f 31-33 , Q - Song et al., 1999: 511, figs 295H, 296G-H, R - Tang, Yang 1995. J. Lanzhou Univ. (nat. Sci.) 31: 110-112. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Gen. Ghumattus Prószynski, 1992
Type species Ghumattus primus (21 recognizable species)
See more species at Ghumattus-Q+M

Ghumattus primus.
SOURCE: Proszynski J. 1992b. Ann. zool., 44, 9: 173, figs 33-37, 43. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.
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Gen. Hasarina Schenkel, 1963
Type species Hasarina contortospinosa (7 recognizable species)
See more species at Hasarina-Q+M

TENTATIVE SEPARATION OF GENERA. Species with plate-like embolus, characteristically twisted corkscrew-like (details visible at about 200x magnification), can be separated into two genera by the shape of bulbus:
a) those with proximal (posterior) end of bulbus triangular, drawn into prominent high lobe, should be classified into genus Hasarina (type species Hasarina contortospinosa); [distribution E Palaearctics];
b) those with proximal (posterior) end of bulbus rounded, without any posterior lobe, should be classified into genus Nigorella (type species Nigorella aethiopica) [distribution Africa] (see below).
Internal structure of epigyne is known for Nigorella
but not yet for Hasarina.

A - Hasarina contortospinosa, B-C - Hasarina contortospinosa, D - Hasarina hunanensis, E-G - Hasarina hirticeps, H-K - Hasarina sichuanensis .
SOURCE: A - Wesolowska 1981b: 132-133, f 10-13, B-C - Peng, Xie, Xiao 1993: 44, 83-84, f 254-263, E -Song & Chai, 1992: 80, f. 7A-C, F - Song, Zhu & Chen, 1999: 510, f. 294K-L, G - Zha & Zhang, 2014: 83, f. 1-10, H-K - Peng, Xie & Kim, 1993: 11, f. 22-29. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.
Song & Chai, 1992: 80, f. 7A-C, B-C.

Gen. Hasarinella Wesolowska, 2012
Type species Hasarinella berlandi (2 recognizable species)
See more species at Hasarinella-Q+M

Pending reclassification, presumably to ICIINES[?]

A - Hasarinella berlandi, B-C - Hasarinella distincta : male and female.
SOURCE : A - Wesolowska 2012b. Genus. 23(2): 206-208, f 14-18, B-C - Haddad & Wesołowska, 2013: 24(3-4): 475-477, 34-38, 55-56. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

Gen. Nigorella Wesolowska & Tomasiewicz, 2008
Type species Nigorella aethiopica 4_recognizable species)
See more species at
Nigorella-Q+M

TENTATIVE SEPARATION OF GENERA. Species with plate-like embolus, characteristically twisted corkscrew-like (details visible at about 200x magnification), can be separated into two genera by the shape of bulbus:
a) those with proximal (posterior) end of bulbus triangular, drawn into prominent high lobe, should be classufied into genus Hasarina (type species Hasarina contortospinosa) (see above) [distribution E Palaearctics];
b) those with proximal (posterior) end of bulbus rounded, without any posterior lobe, should be classified into genus Nigorella (type species Nigorella aethiopica) [distribution Africa]. "Nigorella" petrae is left provisionally with Nigorella, pending dicovery of it's proper placement. Internal structure of epigyne is known for Nigorella but not yet fot Hasarina.

A-B - Nigorella aethiopica, C-E - Nigorella albimana, F-I - Nigorella hirsuta, J - same, tip of embolus, K - Nigorella manica.
SOURCE: A-B - Wesolowska, Tomasiewicz, 2008. J. Afrotr. Zool. 4: 36-37, 130-14, C-E - Proszynski J. 1987. Atlas ....: 71, F-I - Wesołowska 2009: Ann. zool. 59(4): 521-523, f 31, 33. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.
Nigorella [?] petrae WHERE TO PLACE?
SOURCE: Prószyński, 1992a: 93, f. 8-12 . All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

Gen. Pancorius Simon, 1902
Type species Pancorius dentichelis (23 recognizable species)
See more species at
Pancorius-Q+M

Figure - .A - Pancorius dentichelis, B - Pancorius petoti, C - Pancorius dabanis, D, F - Pancorius magnus, E - Pancorius sp., G-J -Pancorius crassipes syntype specimens [MISPLACED? epigyne and its internal structure incompatible, palp comparable, pending revision].
SOURCE: A, C - Proszynski 1984a. Atlas rysunków diagnostycznych mniej znanych Salticidae (Araneae). Zeszyty Naukowe Wyższej Szkoły Rolniczo-Pedagogiczne,  Siedlce . Atlas... : 98, B - Prósz., Deel.-Rein., 2013.©Arthr. selecta. 22(2): 139, f 109-111, D - Zabka M. 1985. Ann. zool., 39, 11: 422, f 385-400, E - ©Photo. D. Petot, G - ©Photo. © Ono, Ikeda, Kono. 2009: 568, pl 5, H-J- Proszynski 1973b. Ann. zool. 30: 107-110, f 25-32. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

Gen. Pharacocerus Simon, 1902
Type species Pharacocerus sessor (5 recognizable species)
See more species at Pharacocerus-Q+M
.

COMMENT. Genus Pharacocerus consists of different genera lumped together, subspecies are in fact separate species.

A - Pharacocerus sessor, B - "Pharacocerus" ephippiatus, C - Pharacocerus fagei, D - "Pharacocerus fagei" soudanensis, E - "Pharacocerus fagei" verdieri.
SOURCES: A-B - Proszynski 1984a. Atlas rysunków diagnostycznych mniej znanych Salticidae (Araneae). Zeszyty Naukowe Wyższej Szkoły Rolniczo-Pedagogiczne,  Siedlce . Atlas ...: 105, C-E - Berland, Millot 1941. 12, 2: 359, f 61A, 61C; 361, f. 62. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

Gen. Pseudamycus Simon, 1902
Type species Pseudamycus albomaculatus (6 recognizable species)
See more species at
Pseudamycus-Q+M

A-C - Pseudamycus albomaculatus, D - Pseudamycus flavopubescens, E - Pseudamycus canescens (looks like Plexippus), F - Pseudamycus hasselti, G - Pseudamycus bhutani, H - Pseudamycus himalaicus.
SOURCE: A, D-E - - Proszynski 1984a. Atlas rysunków diagnostycznych mniej znanych Salticidae (Araneae). Zeszyty Naukowe Wyższej Szkoły Rolniczo-Pedagogiczne,  Siedlce . Atlas ...: 114-115 B - Zabka M. 1990c. Senckenbergiana. biol. 70 (1/3): 178, f 38-40, C - ©Photo F. and J. Murphy,
F - Zabka 1985. Annales zoologici, 39 (11): 439-440, f 508-510, G - Zabka M. 1990c. Senckenbergiana. biol. 70 (1/3): 178, f 38-40, H - Tikader B. K. 1967. Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., Bangalore, 66: 118-119, f 2a-b. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.