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Salticidae (Araneae) genera of the world - an atlas
(unfinished manuscript)
by Jerzy Prószyński

Professor Emeritus, Museum and Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
ul. Wilcza 63, 00-679 Warsaw, POLAND

e-mail: jerzy.proszynski@wp.pl

Chapter 10
HARMOCHIRINES
informal group of genera
Version August 24th, 2020.


symbol of the supragroup HYLLOIDA

Composition and searching on this page Bianor Boesenbergus gen. n. Harmochirus Modunda Microbianor Modunda Napoca Neaetha Sibianor.

Main diagnostic characters of HARMOCHIRINES
A-C - Bianor albobimaculatus (palp, internal structure of epigyne & "c" connection, D - Bianor vitiensis, E-F - Sibianor larae - male and female ©Photo J. Lissner.
SOURCE: A-C - Prószyński 2003a . Ann. zool.,39-42, figs 113-114,21, D - Berry, Beatty, Prószyński 1996. J. Arachn. Vol. 24(3): 222-223, E-F - ©Photo J. Lissner.
All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.


Informal group of genera HARMOCHIRINES

Type genus Harmochirus Simon, 1885, of which type species is Harmochirus brachiatus (Thorell, 1877) [= Ballus brachiatus Thorell, 1877].
Mutual diagnostic characters of genera included. Palps with bulbus encircled by hair thin embolus. Epigyne with anterior half occupied by large membranous "window" bisected by prominent, sclerotized pocket.

Description. Small spiders with rather stout body, identifiable by their genital organs. In males bulbus is oval or round, often anteriorly truncated and flat, encircled by hair thin embolus, there is no conductor. Epigyne comparable with HABRONATTINES by single median pocket, located in about mid-length of epigyne, followed by median grove. The most striking feature is large, anterior, membranous “window”, posteriorly limited by sclerotized rims, incompletely bisected by elongated pocket. Ducts anteriorly membranous, passing by characteristic "C" connector into sclerotized, entangled part, ultimately joining poorly visible spermathecae, in some species compact and internally convoluted. Enclosed illustrations are integral part of description.

Gen. Bianor Peckham, Peckham, 1885
Type species Scythropa maculata Keyserling, 1883 (25 recognizable species)
See more species at Bianor-Q+M

REMARKS. Differs from Sibianor by flattish, smooth tegulum in palps, without protuberance (compare Sibianor below), no clear difference among females of these genera (both have "c"-connection in internal epigyne).

. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

A-B - Bianor maculatus, C-D - Bianor albobimaculatus, D - same, F-H - Bianor maculatus, I-J - Bianor incitatus, K-L - Bianor obak., M - Bianor balius (compare with. fig. I) , N - Bianor angulosus: (synon. specimen of "Stichius" albomaculatus from Sumatra, identified by Thorell, coll. Mus. Stockholm, and fragment of the original description od specimen kept in Mus. Genoa).
SOURCE: A-B - Davies Todd, Żabka 1989: 1989. Mem. Queens. Mus.: 245, t 47, C-D - Proszynski 2003a . Ann. zool.,39-42, figs 113-114,21, E - ©photo by B. Knoflach, F-H - ©Photo R. Whyte, I-J - Logunov D.V. 2001. Arthropoda Selecta, 9 (4): 236-240, figs. 89-104, K-L - Berry, Beatty, Proszynski 1996. J. Arachn. 24(3): 220-222, figs 18-24. M - Logunov, 2019: 101, f. 1-3, 5-10, N - Proszynski 1984a. Atlas rysunków diagnostycznych mniej znanych Salticidae (Araneae). Zeszyty Naukowe Wyższej Szkoły Rolniczo-Pedagogiczne,  Siedlce : 57. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.
ATTENTION: Existing documentation confirm introduced by Logunov synonymy of Bianor incitatus (fig. I-J) with Bianor angulosus (fig. N), but not Bianor obak (fig. K-L) which is distinctly different species.

Correction to list of synonyms:
Stichius albomaculatus: Prószyński, 1984a: 57 removal from synonymy of Bianor incitatus Thorell, 1890
Stichius albo-maculatus Thorell, 1890 70 ("nicht zu deuten!" per Roewer in the WSC).
Stichius albomaculatus Prószyński, 1984a: 57.
Stichius albomaculatu Logunov, 2001a: 281 (species dubius).
Bianor incitatus Logunov, 2001a: 236, f. 87-104.

Gen. Boesenbergus gen. n. Prószyński (in preparation)
Type species Bianor pullus (3 recognizable species)
See more species at Sibianor-Q+M

Remarks. Genus resembling Sibianor and Pellenes (Pelmultus, Pelpaucus) by palps and epigyne. In males characterized by enormous tibial apophysis and presence of tegular protuberance near the posterior rim of bulbus, "embolus" broad (hair-like hidden in sheath?), palpal femur with protuberance, at least in one species male leg I is robust, with femur I almost as long as carapace. Epigyne in original drawing is not divided transversally, has broad central space, encircled by lateral semicircular grooves which are almost as long as epigyne, it is distorted by inclined position in anterior slope of abdomen (fig. B & C), to show show it in position comparable with other genera, the specimen must be fixed in oblique position in opposite direction. Spermathecae and ducts form sclerotized compact body with internal spaces, not resembling Bianor. This diagnosis may require correction, due to insufficient and unclear documentation.
A-F, K-M, S - Boesenbergus pullus, G-J, N - Boesenbergus kochiensis,O-R - Boesenbergus sp.
PROPOSED NEW GENUS. A-F, K-M, S - Boesenbergus pullus (originally "Bianor " pullus), [A- epigyne of the holotype specimen, B - revision of epigyne of the same holotype specimen, in a position as in original drawing, C - revision of the same epigyne adjusted to the standard, horizontal position, D-E - epigyne and its internal structures as interpreted by Logunov, F - epigyne as interpreted by Yin et al.], G-J, N - Boesenbergus kochiensis, G-J - epigyne and its internal structure as interpreted by Bohdanowicz, K - palp as interpreted by Logunov, L - palp as interpreted byYin et al, M - palp as interpreted by Zhou & Zhang, N - palp as interpreted by Logunov], 0-R - Boesenbergus sp."China, Shanghai, VI. 1906 S.C. Thompson". Coll. California Acad. Sci., San Francisco, S - Boesenbergus pullus - photograph from Japan.
SOURCE: A-original drawings by Boesenberg, Strand 1906. Abh. senck. naturf. Ges., 30: 354, f 378 [Bianor pullus ..."Typus! Saga, W. Doenitz, 1882. Senckenbg. Mus. 3542, Frankfurt M..", B-C - Proszynski 1984a. Atlas rysunków diagnostycznych mniej znanych Salticidae (Araneae). Zeszyty Naukowe Wyższej Szkoły Rolniczo-Pedagogiczne,  Siedlce: 55-56, D-E - as interpreted by Logunov, F, L - Yin et al. 2012: 1466, f. 799a-g. , G-J - Bohdanowicz in: Bohdanowicz A., Proszynski J. 1987.Annales zoologici, Warszawa, 41, 2: 60-61, f 45-48, M - palp as interpreted by Zhou & Zhang, 2011: 513, f. 377A-D, N - Logunov D.V. 2001a [2000] . Arthropoda Selecta, Moscow 9 (4): 268, f 296-305, 0-R - Prószyński 1995-2016 Database of Salticidae, Logunov.not yet descibed , S - © Ono, Ikeda, Kono. Salticidae of Japan, Tokai Univ. Press, 2009: 583, pl 482.

Boesenbergus pullus Prószyński – proposed gen. n.
Selected taxonomic references (copied with modifications from World Spider Catalog)
Bianor pullus Bösenberg & Strand, 1906: 354, pl. 14, f. 378 (Df).
Bianor pullus Wesołowska, 1981a: 70, f. 81-82 (f).
Harmochirus pullus Prószyński, 1984a: 55-56 (Tf from Bianor).
Harmochirus pullus Yaginuma, 1986a: 236, f. 131.4 (f).
Harmochirus pullus Bohdanowicz & Prószyński, 1987: 57, f. 38-41 (f, not m, =H. insulanus).
Harmochirus pullus Logunov & Wesołowska, 1992: 119, f. 6A-B, 7A-B (mf).
Sibianor pullus Logunov, 2001a: 273, f. 322-328 (Tmf from Harmochirus).
Sibianor pullus Zhu & Zhang, 2011: 513, f. 377A-D (mf).
Sibianor pullus Yin et al., 2012: 1466, f. 799a-g (mf).
Sibianor pullus Kim & Lee, 2014: 131, f. 93A-D, pl. 26 (mf).
Boesenbergus  pullus Prószynski 2020 – proposed – salticidae.pl/4-genera/ 2_4_harmoch.html.

Gen. Harmochirus Simon, 1885
Type species Harmochirus brachiatus (12 species)
See more species at
Harmochirus-Q+M

A-C - Harmochirus brachiatus (Bali), D -Harmochirus brachiatus [?] Sabah: Danum Valley, E-F - Harmochirus brachiatus [?], G-H - Harmochirus luculentus [?] .
SOURCE A-C - Prószynski, Deeleman-Reinhold, 2010. Arthr.selec., 19(3): 166-168, 73-78, D-F - © Photo P. Koomen, G-H - © Photo B. Knoflach. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.
I-J - Three interpretations of the same specimen from coll. Simon "7553"("type"!) Harmochirus luculentus.
SOURCE: J - Proszynski 1987: 59, 108, J - Wesolowska 1994. Genus, 5 (3): 203, f 14-15, K - Logunov 2001a. Arthr. Sel., 9 (4): 254-260, figs 214-221. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.
All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.
L-N - Harmochirus exaggeratus
SOURCE: Caleb, Mathai, 2015. Mun. Ent. Zool.10 (1): 117-121, f 1-26. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Gen. Havaika Prószynski, 2001
Type species Havaika jamiesoni(24 recognizable species)
See more species at
Havaika-Q+M

A-B - Havaika jamiesoni, C-D - Havaika albociliata, E - H. cruciata by Arnedo & Gillespie 2006, F - H. cruciata by Prószyński, G - Havaika sp., H-I - Havaika senicula, J-L - Havaika puben, M-N - Havaika cf. pubens.
SOURCE: A-D, H-K - Prószynski 2007b (2008): 16(4): 204, , 10, 34, f 21, 37, 63, 78; 208-209, f 3-4, 31, 47, 60, 72, 88, E, G, L-N -Arnedo, M. A. & Gillespie, R. G. (2006). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 41: 472-495Arnedo, M. A. & Gillespie, R. G. (2006). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 41: 472-495. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

COMMENT. Note inconspicuous diagnostic differences between species shown at E and F, testifying to different species status.

Gen. Microbianor Logunov, 2000
Type species Microbianor nigritarsus (7 recognizable species)
See more species at Microbianor-Q+M

A - Microbianor nigritarsus, B - Microbianor deltshevi, C-D - Microbianor furcatus.
SOURCE: A - Logunov D.V. 2000b. Cimbebasia, 16: 264-265, figs 11-20, B - Logunov 2009: ZooKeys 16: 276-278, f. 20-23, C-D - Haddad, Wesołowska 2013.Genus 24(3-4): 489-492, f 68–72, 75–76. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Gen. Modunda Simon, 1901
Type species Modunda staintoni (5 recognizable species)
See more species at
Modunda-Q+M

A-B - Modunda staintoni, C-D - same [?] from Yemen.
SOURCE: A-B - Proszynski 2003a. Ann. zool. 2003: 98-99, f 113, 116-117, 120, 123-129, C-D - ©Photo B. Knoflach. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Gen. Napoca Simon, 1901
Type species Napoca insignis (2 recognizable species)
See more species at Napoca-Q+M

Figure - . A - Napoca insignis, N1 - Napoca constanzeae.
SOURCE: A - Proszynski 2003a. Ann. zool. 108-109, f 133-135 B - ,©Photo M. Schäfer in Logunov, D. V. & Schäfer, M. (2017). Arthropoda Selecta 26(3): 237, f. 1-3, 9-13, 17-21. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Gen. Neaetha Simon, 1884
Type species Neaetha membrosa (8 recognizable species)
See more species at Neaetha-Q+M

A-E - Neaetha membrosa: A - from Pozuelo de Calatrava" Typus[?], B-C - from France by S. Lecigne and P. Ogier, D-E - male and female - ©Photo M. Schäfer, F-H - Neaetha oculata.
SOURCE: A - Proszynski 1984a. Atlas rysunków diagnostycznych mniej znanych Salticidae (Araneae). Zeszyty Naukowe Wyższej Szkoły Rolniczo-Pedagogiczne,  Siedlce : 91-92, B-C - Nieuwsbrief van de Belgische Arachnologische Vereniging 30(3): 107, f. 4J-K, 4Q-S, D-E - ©Photo M. Schäfer, F-G - Proszynski 2003a. Ann. zool. 53(1): 109, f 453-455, H -Proszynsk 1993 F. Saudi Arab. 13: 39-43, f 20-27. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Gen. Sibianor Logunov, 2000
Type species Sibianor aurocinctus (14 recognizable species)
See more species at Sibianor-Q+M

COMMENT: The genus Sibianor differs from Bianor by the presence of protuberance on tegulum, other characters seem similar.

A-D - Sibianor aurocinctus, E - Sibianor annae, G - Sibianor japonicus, G-I - Sibianor kenyaensis.
SOURCE: A-B - Zabka M. 1997. F. Polski 19: 5-187, f 60-69. H-I -.photographs from the collection of German Arachnologische Geselshaft , Logunov 2001a. Arthr. Sel., 9 (4): 264, f 266-269; 267-268, figs 290-291; 294-295, phots 42-44. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.