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Salticidae (Araneae) genera of the world - an atlas
(unfinished manuscript)
by Jerzy Prószyński

Professor Emeritus, Museum and Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
ul. Wilcza 63, 00-679 Warsaw, POLAND

e-mail: jerzy.proszynski@wp.pl

Chapter 11
PELLENINES
informal group of genera
Version August 24th, 2020.


symbol of the supragroup HYLLOIDA

Composition and searching on this page Dexippus Pellenes [including subgenera: (Pellenes) (Pellap)(Pellevii) (Pelmirus) (Pelmultus) (Pelpaucus) pending classification .

Exemplary representatives of the group
A - Pellenes tripunctatus- SEM of dissected palp, B-C - Pellenes nigrociliatus palp and epigyne, D-F - Pellenes tripunctatus color pattern of male: dorsal and frontal views and -H - of female ©Photo J. Lissner, other sources - see below.
All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

PELLENINES
informal group of genera

Mutual diagnostic characters of genera include: embolus hidden inside robust, fleshy structure, popularly mistaken for embolus, being in fact protective sheath hiding inside hairlike, long embolus. Epigyne with a pair of sclerotized grooves and prominent median pocket, the latter developed into prominent ridge in some species (Pellenes tripunctatus). Spermathecae and ducts heavily sclerotized, can form compact bodies with internal convoluted chambers.
Description. Palps with robust, fleshy protective sheath being modified conductor (see SEM of Pellenes lapponicus - Fig. A and tip of embolus of P. nigrociliatus - Fig. B above) and long, hairlike embolus hidden inside. Epigyne and its internal structures in some species (P. lapponicus, P. ostrinus, P. diagonalis) look as intermediate to HABRONATTINES. Body proportions characteristic, although difficult to describe, color patterns diversified, consisting of elements permitting to identify genera (see illustrations below).
REMARK. In the traditional system subfamily Pelleninae contained also genus Habronattus, here considered separate group HABRONATTINES because of presence of striking conductor, separated from embolus!

Gen. Dexippus Thorell, 1891
Type species Dexippus kleini (3 species)
See more species at Dexippus-Q+M

A-B - Dexippus kleini, C - Dexippus topali.

SOURCE: A-B - Proszynski 1984a. Atlas rysunków diagnostycznych mniej znanych Salticidae (Araneae). Zeszyty Naukowe Wyższej Szkoły Rolniczo-Pedagogiczne,  Siedlce : 33, C - Proszynski 1992b. Ann. zool. 44, 9: 170-171, f 12-19. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Gen. Pellenes Simon, 1876
Type species Pellenes tripunctatus(77 species)
See more species at Pellenes-Q+M

Genus divided incompletely by Logunov, Marusik & Rakov, 1999 into four subgenera (not displayed by World Spider Catalog, ver. 20.0), Pellenes (Pellenes)-Q Pellenes (Pelmirus)-Q Logunov, Marusik, Rakov, 1999 (5 species), Pellenes (Pelmultus)-Q Logunov, Marusik & Rakov, 1999 (34 species) Pellenes (Pelpaucus)-Q Logunov, Marusik, Rakov, 1999 (12 species) - with several species left unclassified. Additional subgenus was delimited by Prószyński in 2016 - Pellenes (Pellap) Prószyński, 2016 (1 species) and one more in the present survey - Pellenes (Pellevii) subgen. n. These subgenera have mutual diagnostic characters, except body shape, but differ distinctly by structure of palps, epigyne and spermathecae, so they deserve status of separate genera. Particularly intriguing is similarity of epigyne of Pelpaucus to HABRONATTINES, unfortunately spermathecae of the latter are almost unknown (in two species out of ninety four).

Subgenus Pellenes (Pellenes) Simon, 1876
Representative species Pellenes tripunctatus (5 species)
See more species at (Pellenes)-Q

A-E, H-I, K-M - Pellenes tripunctatus, F-G, J, N-O - Pellenes seriatus, P - Pellenes sp. from Israel.
SOURCE: A-C, H - Prószyński 1984a. Atlas rysunków diagnostycznych mniej znanych Salticidae (Araneae). Zeszyty Naukowe Wyższej Szkoły Rolniczo-Pedagogiczne,  Siedlce : 103, D-G, I-J - Metzner 1999. Andrias 14: 123-124, 242, table 87-88, K-M - ©Photo J. Lissner, N - ©Photo A. Senglet, P - ©Photo M Schaefer). All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.
A-B - Pellenes ignifrons, C-D - Pellenes laggani [a synonym?].
SOURCE: A-B - Prószyński 1971: 214, f. 20-27, C-D - male by Peckham & Peckham 1909: 532, 560, D - female by Levi& Levi 1951. Zoologica 36(4): 232, f 47, 49. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Pellenes (Pelmirus) Logunov, Marusik, Rakov, 1999
Representative species Pellenes dilutus Logunov, 1995 (5 species)
See more species at (Pelmirus)-Q

A - Pellenes (Pelmirus) hedjazensis, B - Pellenes (Pelmirus) negevensis, C - Pellenes dilutus.
SOURCE: A - Proszynski 1993. F. Saudi Ar. 13: 44-46, ff. 32-36, B - Proszynski J. 2000. Arthr. Sel., 8(4): 257, figs 96-98, C - Logunov, 1995 : 237, 240, f. 1-11,. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Pellenes (Pelmultus) Logunov, Marusik & Rakov, 1999
Representative species Attus geniculatus Simon, 1868 (34 species)
See more species at (Pelmultus)-Q

Diagnostic characters of Pellenes (Pelmultus): A, D - epularis, B, E, G, J - geniculatus, C, F, I, L - nigrociliatus, H - maderianus, M - Pellenes (Pelmultus) nigrociliatus and (N-O) its characteristic behavior, P-S - Pellenes sp. from Australia.

SOURCE: M - Proszynski. Ann. zool., 2003a, 53 (1): 116-117, figs 460, 471-472, 729-733, M - ©Photo J. Lissner, N-O - ©Photo H. Bellman, P-Q - ©Photo R. Whyte. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Pellenes (Pelpaucus) Logunov, Marusik, Rakov, 1999
Representative species Pellenes limbatus Kulczyński, 1895 (12 species)
See more species at (Pelpaucus)-Q

A-B - Pellenes limbatus, C - spermatheca of Pellenes limbatus (as P. chanujensis), D- Pellenes[?] longimanus.
SOURCE: A-B - Marusik, Fritzén & Song, 2007 Arthropoda Selecta 15:: 269, f. 40-41, B - same, Logunov, Marusik, Rakov 1999. Journal of Natural History, 33:: 105, f. 10, 15, 17, C - Proszynski 1982. Ann. hist. nat. Mus. hung., 74: 285-287, ff. 37-40, D - Kaston B. J. 1948: 70: 462, t 91, f 1695-97. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Pellenes diagonalis vs. Pellenes ostrinus controversy

A-G - Pellenes diagonalis, E-J - Pellenes ostrinus, K - abstracts of original descriptions of Pellenes diagonalis and Pellenes ostrinus (the only tangible characters are color of abdomen of male: "noir" versus "rouge", and length of abdomen: 5,5 mm. versus 4,5 mm), L - literature quotations until 1939.
SOURCE: A - Metzner a 1999. Andrias 14: 121, 240, table 86a-k, B-C - Proszynski 1984a. Atlas rysunków diagnostycznych mniej znanych Salticidae (Araneae). Zeszyty Naukowe Wyższej Szkoły Rolniczo-Pedagogiczne,  Siedlce: 102, D-L - Proszynski 2003a. Ann. zool. 53 (1): 117-119, f 461-462, 476-482, J - ©Photo A. Weinstein, K - Simon, E. (1868b). Monographie des espèces européennes de la famille ... Annales de la Société Entomologique de France (4) 8: 46, 52, Bonnet P. (1958) Bibliographia Araneorum, (4me partie: N-S 3482, 346. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.
COMMENT: The status of species Pellenes diagonalis, E-L - Pellenes ostrinus remains uncertain, with the only tangible characters in the original descriptions by Simon (1868) are color pattern of abdomen of male: "noir" versus "rouge" (see illustrations H and J, above). The only diagnostic drawings were published by Prˇszynski 1984, 1995-2016, 2003, 2017 and Metzner 1999: 121, f. 86a-k and 128, f. 91a-i. none of them showing type species. Editors of WSC twice changed alignment by Prószyński following undocumented opinions of Cantarella & Alicata (2002) and Schäfer & Breitling (2018) - these are valuable but do not solve the problem. The arguments used by Simon are weakened by opinions that red coloration of Pellenes ostrinus is due to immature state of studied specimens (illustrations H and J - but the latter has adult palps developed). I propose to delay decision on status of these names until better documentation of palps and spermathecae will be available and, possibly, series of photos of pre- and post-ecdysis of red species to see whether that coloration is really temporary.

Pellenes (Pellap) Prószyński, 2016 subgen. n.
Type species Pellenes (Pellap) lapponicus( 1 species)
See more species at (Pellap)-Q


A-C - Pellenes (Pellap) lapponicus, D-E - same, scanning electron microscope photo of dissected bulbus and embolus, dorsal (interior) side up, F - photograph of male.
SOURCE: A-C - Proszynski 1991: 512-514 ff. 1369.1-4, D-E - Logunov, Marusik 1999c. Arthr. Sel. 8(4): 269, f 22-23, F - ©Photo D. Andersson [Davida@live.se] - https://www.pbase.com/d_andersson/image/164718890/original. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Subgenus Pellenes (Pellevii) subgen. n.
Type species Pellenes levii Lowrie & Gertsch, 1955 (9 species)
See more species at Pellenes-Q+M

Grup of species with palps and epigynae strikingly different from other Pellenes (rather resemblig Bianor - as far as could be suspected from rather uninstructive drawings) and pending further research, They should preferably be upgraded to full genus, but data heretofore available are insufficient for that.
A - Pellenes levii, B - Pellenes apacheus, C - Pellenes crandalli, D - Pellenes shoshonensis, E - Pellenes washonus, F - Pellenes perexcultus, G - Pellenes wrighti, H - Pellenes limatus.
SOURCE: A - Lowrie & Gertsch, 1955: 25, f. 17-18, 29, B - Gertsch 1934: 20, figs 15-16, C - Lowrie, Gertsch, 1955. Am. Mus. Nov. 1736: 25, 23, f 23-24, D - Lowrie, Gertsch, 1955. Am. Mus. Nov. 1736: 23, f 23-24, E - Lowrie, Gertsch, 1955. Am. Mus. Nov. 1736: 25, f. 17-18, 29, F - Clark, Benoit, 1977: 220: 100, f. 42-43, G - Lowrie, Gertsch, 1955. Am. Mus. Nov. 1736: 28, f.13-14 +28, f. 13-14, H - Lowrie, Gertsch, 1955. Am. Mus. Nov. 1736: 25, f. 17-18, 29. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Pellenes (pending classification)
species Pellenes-Q+M

A-C - Pellenes bulawayoensis.
SOURCE: A - Wesolowska W. 1999a. Arnoldia Zim., 10(15): 163, figs 52-56, B-C - same, Haddad, Wesołowska 2011 © Afr. Invertebr. 52(1): 93-95, photo 221-222,
All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy
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