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Salticidae (Araneae) genera of the world - an atlas
(unfinished manuscript)
by Jerzy Prószyński

Professor Emeritus, Museum and Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
ul. Wilcza 63, 00-679 Warsaw, POLAND

e-mail: jerzy.proszynski@wp.pl

 Chapter 15

AMYCOIDA and AMYCINES
informal group of genera
Version August 24th, 2020.


symbol of the supragroup HYLLOIDA

Composition and searching on this page Amycus Asaracus Atelurius Cheliceroides Cylistella Cyllodania Druzia Encolpius Eustiromastix Fluda Frespera Fuentes Gypogyna Hypaeus Noegus Orvilleus Rishaschia Scoturius Synemosyna OTHER SPECIES OF "Synemosyna" Titanattus Toloella Ugandinella Urupuyu

Examples of main diagnostic characters of AMYCINES
A-B - Amycus flavicomis, C - Amycus sp. .
SOURCE: A-B - Galiano 1963b. Physis, 23 (66): 292-293, t 7, f 8-10, C - Maddison 2015. Journal of Arachnology. 43: 231–292, f. 53-44. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

AMYCOIDA - informal supragroup of genera.

Definition. Tentatively delimited supragroup of genera of Salticidae, having usually naked embolus, arising directly from bulbus and with spermophor following margin of bulbus, like in HYLLOIDA, but with additional, "S" resembling loop of spermophor in the center of bulbus. Bulbus itself is round or oval, epigyne with thin walled. often membranous ducts, usually bent loop like, spermathecae oval, sclerotized. Many genera have multicusp, comb like cheliceral tooth on either retrolateral or prolateral edge of chelicerae, rarely on both.
Current progress. We owe interpretation of this supragroup to Maddison and it seems generally convincing, especially in placing SITTICINES inside it. Maddison (2015) divided AMYCOIDA into 9 tribes, leaving two more genera unclassified, since Maddison does not provide morphological definition of these poorly known groups I cannot report details of that proposal. I recommend readers to watch for further publication Maddison and to draw own conclusions on merits of that divisions.

AMYCINES
informal group of genera

One of three tentatively delimited groups of genera of AMYCOIDA (as defined by Maddison 2015): AMYCINES, SARINDES and SITTICINES - for particulars of diagnostic characters see this and following chapters. The chapter on AMYCOIDA VARIA is at the moment loose assemblage of genera, wirhout suggestionss how should they be further suvdivided.

Gen. Amycus Koch C.L., 1846
Type species Amycus igneus [sp. inquirenda]. Reference species Amycus flavicomis Simon, 1900 (9 species)
See more species at Amycus-Q+M

A-B - Amycus flavicomis [note presence of patellar apophysis], C - Amycus sp.
SOURCE: A-B - Galiano 1963b. Physis, 23 (66): 292-293, t 7, f 8-10, C - Maddison 2015. Journal of Arachnology. 43: 231–292, f. 53-44. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Gen. Asaracus C. L. Koch, 1846
Type species Asaracus megacephalus (5 species)
See more species at Asaracus-Q+M

A - Asaracus megacephalus Holotype, Mus. Berlin No. 1687), B - same, epigyne (soft tissues not cleared), C - same, habitus.
SOURCE: A - Proszynski 1984a. Atlas rysunków diagnostycznych mniej znanych Salticidae (Araneae). Zeszyty Naukowe Wyższej Szkoły Rolniczo-Pedagogiczne,  Siedlce: 164, B - Edwards, 2015: Zootaxa 4036(1): 23, f. 4A-J. ©Magnolia Press, C - © Photo Gasnier & Azevedo. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Gen. Atelurius Simon, 1901
Type species Atelurius segmentatus (1 species)
See more species at
Atelurius-Q+M

Atelurius segmentatus.
SOURCE: Galiano M.E. 1988a. J. Arachnology, 15: 290, figs16-17. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Gen. Cheliceroides Zabka, 1985
Type species Cheliceroides longipalpis (1 species)
See more at Cheliceroides-Q+M

A-B - Cheliceroides longipalpis, C - said to be matching female [how identified?].
SOURCE: A-B - Zabka M. 1985. Ann. zool.ogici, 39, 11: 210, f 76-80, C - Peng, Xie 1993: 81, f 5-10 . All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Gen. Cylistella Simon, 1901
Type species Cylistella cuprea (4 species)
See more at .Cylistella-Q+M

A - Cylistella cuprea, B-D - Cylistella sp. general appearance as well as epigyne and its area, E - Cylistella scarabaeoides.
SOURCE:A - GalianoGaliano, M. E. (1963a) Physis, Revista de la Sociedad Argentina de Ciencias Naturales (C) 23: .340, pl. XVI, f. 18-20, B-D - © Photo Gasnier & Azeved, E - Chickering 1946. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 97: 396 f. 350-356. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.
COMMENT: According to Maddison (2015: 276) Cylistella is placed together with Erica in SIMONELLINI.

Gen. Druzia Ruiz & Brescovit, 2013
Type species Druzia flavostriata.) (1 species)
See more at Druzia-Q+M

A-D - Druzia flavostriata
SOURCE: A-C - Ruiz, Brescovit 2013. Zootaxa 3664 (4): 401–433, f 17, 95-100, A-C - Edwards, Rinaldi, Ruiz 2005. Biota Neotropica 5(2): 22, f 17-18, 50. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.
ATTENTION: Maddison (2015: 2
76) places Druzia together with Breda in his tribe Bredini - based presumably on body appearance of both, but palps and epigyne are entirely different, gene sequence of Druzia was not studied by him.

Gen. Encolpius Simon, 1900
Type species Encolpius albobarbatus (3 species)
See more at Encolpius-Q+M l

A - Encolpius albobarbatus, B-C - E. guaraniticus: palps and imternal structure of epigyne, ventral and dorsal view (enhanced in part by J. Prószyński).
SOURCE: Galiano 1963b. Physis, 23 (66): 348, t 19, f 6-10, Galiano 1968a. Rev. Mus. Argen. Entom.2 (3): 313, f 48-58. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Gen. Eustiromastix Simon, 1902
Type species Eustiromastix obscurus) ( 14 species)
See more species at
.Eustiromastix-Q+M

A-B - Eustiromastix obscurus, C-D - Eustiromastix bahiensis, E - Eustiromastix moraballi .
SOURCE: A-B - Galiano M. E. 1979e. J. Arachnol., 7: 172, ff. 1-3, 24, C-D - Galiano M. E. 1979e. J. Arachnol., 7: 180, f. 4-6, 20-22, E - © Photo Machado & Gasnier. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Gen. Fluda Peckham & Peckham, 1892
Type species Fluda narcissa (12 species)
See more species at
Fluda-Q+M

REMARKS. The genus consists of several groups of species differing by the structure of epigyne, but male palps are rather uniform their congeneric status deserves revision, a survey of exemplary diagnostic character available in literature is provided below.

A-B - Fluda narcissa - type species, C-D - Fluda opica, E-H - Fluda cf. araguae, I - Fluda [?] sp.
SOURCE: A-D - Galiano 1971a. Physis, 30 (81): 587, t. 2, f. 9-12, E-H - ©Photo Gasnier & Machado, I - Maddison 2015. Journal of Arachnology. 43: 231–292, f. 43. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Diversity of spermathecae, ducts and male palps in the genus Fluda. A - Fluda napae, B - Fluda perdita , C - Fluda princeps , D - Fluda narcissa (type species #4 - inverted), E - Fluda arague, F - Fluda angulosa, G - Fluda nigritarsis, H- Fluda usta, I - Fluda nigritarsis, J - Fluda araguae,K - Fluda angulosa, L-N - Fluda perdita.
SOURCE: Galiano 1963b. Physis, 23 (66): 354-355, t. 19, ff. 18-20, Galiano 1971a. Physis, 30 (81): 575, 596, f. IV; 577-579, t. 5, f. 3, t. 6, f. 6; 591, pl. II, f. 14, pl. V, f. 1, pl. VI, f. 2; 597, pl. I, f. 15, pl. IV, f. 6-7; Galiano 1986: Physis C. 44 (107): 134, f. 6-8, L - Peckham & Peckham, 1892,All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.
Facsimile of an interesting method of establishing synonymy of male Fluda perdita: with female Fluda usta without any documentation. The synonymy has been accepted by the World Spider Catalog ( ver. 19.5, assesed September 2018), but is not accepted here. See a stormy correspondence on that case. The difference of opinions on merits of particular synonyms has long record (see throughout this paper(, one of the most striking is the case of Toxeus bicuspidatus and T. gorontaloensis.
SOURCE: F24 - Edwards, (2001: 252). All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Nomenclatorical correction - following the above:
Fluda perdita (Peckham & Peckham, 1892) (partial - removal of a synonym) = Fluda usta (Mello-Leitao, 1940) ( no documentation was provided for synonymy)

Gen. Frespera Braul, Lise, 2002
Type species Frespera carinata.
(2 species))
See more species at
Frespera-Q+M

A - Frespera carinata, B-C - Frespera meridionalis.
SOURCE:: Galiano 1963b. Physis, 23 (66): 465-466, t 42, f 1-3 + Braul, Lise, 2002. Biociencias, v. 10, n. 2: 107-109, figs 44-50 + 109-110, figs 51-55. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Gen. Fritzia Pickard-Cambridge O., 1879
Type species Fritzia muelleri (1 species)
See more species at
Fritzia-Q+M

Fritzia muelleri [placemet require confirmation by better drawing].
SOURCE: F28-F29 -Galiano M. E. 1965d. Physis 25(69): 129-130, f 1-4. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Gen. Fuentes Peckham & Peckham, 1894
Type species Fuentes pertinax (2 species)
See more species at
Fuentes-Q+M

A-B - Fuentes pertinax, C-D - Fuentes yucatan.
SOURCE: Ruiz, Brescovit 2007b. Revista Iberica de Aracnologia, 13: 144-146, f 1-6 + 146, f 7-10. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Gen. Gypogyna Simon, 1900
Type species Gypogyna forceps (1 species)
See more species at
Gypogyna-Q+M

A - Gypogyna forceps, B - Gypogyna sp.
SOURCE: A - Galiano 1963b. Physis, 23 (66): 360-361, t. 21 ff. 1-3, A - Maddison 2015. Journal of Arachnology. 43: 231–292, f. 39. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Gen. Hypaeus Simon, 1900
Type species Hypaeus porcatus (20 species)
See more species at .Hypaeus-Q+M

A - Hypaeus porcatus, B-C - Hypaeus mystacalis, D - Hypaeus triplagiatus, E - Hypaeus taczanowskii, F - Hypaeus estebanensis, G - Hypaeus venezuelanus, H - Titanattus pegaseus (for comparison, shouldn't it be transferred to Hypaeus?)., I-J, L-M - Hypaeus miles (Amazonas: Coari: Rio Urucu), K - Hypaeus triplagiatus, N - Hypaeus benignus.
SOURCE: - Galiano 1968a. Rev. Mus. Argent. Entom. 2 (3): 271, 330, ff. 64-69; 328, f 80-85 + 326, f 76-79; 328, f 80-85; t 37, f 16-17, Galiano M. E. 1963b.Physis, 23 (66): 375, 377, t. 22, ff. 7- 8; . t. 24, f. 1-3, - © Photo Gasnier & Azevedo, N - © Photo A. Anker. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Gen. Kupiuka Ruiz, 2010
Type species Kupiuka extratheca. PLACEMENT? (8 species),

See more species at Kupiuka-Q+M

A-B - Kupiuka extratheca, C-D - Kupiuka heteropicta, B - Kupiuka murici.
SOURCE: Ruiz, 2010. Zootaxa, 2630: 62- 64, f 17–22, 58-60, f 1-7; 60, 8–11 All © Magnolia Press. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Gen. Noegus Simon, 1900
Type species Noegus vulpio.(22 species)
See more species at Noegus-Q+M

A - Noegus vulpio, B-C - Noegus) fuscomanus, D - Noegus sp.
SOURCE: A - Galiano 1963b. Physis, 23 (66): 412-413, t 30, f 7-10, B-C - Galiano 1968a. 2 (3): 352-354, f 101-107, D - Maddison 2015. Journal of Arachnology. 43: 231, 292, f. 52.

Gen. Orvilleus Chickering 1946
Type species Orvilleus crassus [placement uncertain] (1 species)
See more at Orvilleus-Q+M

Orvilleus crassus.
SOURCE: Chickering 1946. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 97: 401, f 358-362. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Gen. Rishaschia Makhan, 2006
Type species Rishaschia amrishi . (1 species)
See more species at Rishaschia-Q+M

Rishaschia mandibularis *(nomen nudum) : [species creditet to Ruiz & Rego (in prep.)].
SOURCE: Edwards, 2015: Zootaxa 4036 (1): 60, f. 26A-G. © Magnolia Press. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.
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*FOOTNOTE. No such species was published until 2017, the World Spider Catalog ver. 19.5 contains the following biased references:
"Rishaschia amrishi Makhan, 2006a: 11, f. 11-17 (Dm).
Rishaschia amrishi Edwards, 2015: 60, f. 26A-G (mf) [NB: figures as "Rishaschia mandibularis"]
Rishaschia mandibularis Prószyński, 2017b: 61, f. 28H1 (mf)"

- from which one can understand that Edwards has never published "nomen nudum" "mandibularis" - that error was made only by Prószyński - two years later and without understandable reasons.

AN APPEAL TO THE EDITORS OF THE WSC - I am tired of endless defending against petty "schweinerei" on me. If you wish to lie, please delegate that task to somebody more intelligent.
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Gen. Scoturius Simon, 1901
Type species Scoturius trigris(1 species)
See more species at .Scoturius-Q+M
Scoturius tigris: .[Compare palp of Simonurius!].
SOURCE: Galiano M.E. 1987c. J. Arachnology, 15: 289, f 4, 7-8, 13-15. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Gen. Titanattus" acanjuba. [MISPLACED - disagree with type species] should be transferred to other [NEW?] genus. See excellent paper: Bustamante, A. A. & Ruiz, G. R. S. (2017). Systematics of Thiodinini (Araneae: Salticidae: Salticinae), with description of a new genus and twelve new species. Zootaxa 4362(3): 339, f. 4A-D, 6A-D, 7A-D, 8K, 9A, 28A-F, 29A-E [PLACEMENT?]

Synemosyna Hentz, 1846
Type species Synemosyna formica.(1 species)
See more at Synemosyna-Q+M

COMMENT: Synemosyna formica - type species of the genus Synemosyna is transferred to MYRMARACHNINES because of parallel "pipes-like" spermathecae with anterior detour, shown on drawing of Galiano, also body shape fit that group.

OTHER SPECIES OF "Synemosyna"
See OTHER"Synemosyna"SPECIES
Type species not designated (16 species)

COMMENT: The genus "Synemosyna" is an assemblage of species belonging apparently to various genera. Their internal structure of epigyne could, perhaps, also derived from MYRMARACHNINAE, but it is not as obvious as in Synemosyna formica. More data are badly needed. Pending revision!

Synemosyna aurantiaca.
SOURCE: Galiano, M. E. (1966a). Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (Ent.) 1: 36-37 348, f. 8-11, 44-46, 49, 61. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

COMMENT ON METHODOLOGY: Editors of the WSC follows rule that each group of species MUST HAVE TYPE SPECIES, it cannot be listed WITHOUT A TYPE SPECIES, and in a case of splitting genus, or transfer of type species, all species sharing the same genus name MUST follow the placement of the type species. It does not matter if the type species is unrecognizable, was never revised or its whereabouts is unknown - in the huge family Salticidae containing ca. 641 genera and ca. 4800 recognizable species! As a result each transfer of poorly known species to another genus can increase chaos in taxonomy, especially that the said editors change placement arbitrarily. They have attempted such interference in several cases of genera revised by myself. Progress of research is gradual and situations of misinterpretations frequent, waiting for final placement can be often delayed (in the case of "Viciria" for almost 40 years!).

Gen. Titanattus Peckham, Peckham, 1885
Type species Titanattus saevus.(6 species)
See more species at Titanattus-Q+M

REMARKS: cheliceral dentition conists of two rows of teeth on separate edges of chelicerae.
A-C - Titanattus saevus, D - Titanattus cretatus, E - Titanattus paganus, F-G - Titanattus notabilis [PLACEMENT?], H - Titanattus pegaseus [PLACEMENT?]. I-K - Titanattus pallidus, L - Titanattus sp.
SOURCE: I A-C - F. P.-Cambridge 1900. 191, t 15, f 1, D-E - Chickering 1946. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 97: 383, 385, f 337-342,.Galiano 1963b. Physis, 23(66): 32, t 1, f 11; t 2, f 1-3. Galiano 1963b. Physis, 23(66): 460, t 37, f 16-17, I -K - Edwards, Rinaldi, Ruiz 2005. Biota Neotr. 5(2): 20, f 1-3, 44-46.1-31, L - Maddison 2015. Journal of Arachnology. 43: 231, 292, f. 38 . All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.
REMARKS. F-G, I-K - placement doubtfull, due to cheliceral dentition, containing rows of teeth on two separate edges of chelicerae.

Gen. Toloella Chickering, 1946
Type species Toloella eximia (1 recognizable species)
See more species at.
Toloella-Q+M

Toloella eximia:
SOURCE: Chickering 1946. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard 97: 107, f 98-103. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Gen. Udalmella Galiano, 1994
Type species Udalmella gamboa. ( 1 species)

See more species at Udalmella-Q+M

Figure - . U-Udalmella gamboa :
SOURCE: Galiano M.E. 1993. Scientia (Panama), 8 (1): 194, f 1-6... All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Gen. Ugandinella Wesolowska, 2006
Type species Ugandinella formicula. (1 recognizable species)
See more at.Ugandinella-Q-M

PLACEMENT tentative

A-E - Ugandinella formicula: female (D) and (E) male .
SOURCE: A-C - Wesolowska 2006. Ann. Zool. 56(2): 435-439, f 1-17, D-E - ©Photo R. R. Jackson. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.
[PLACEMENT? - shape of carapace resembling Kima, internal structure of epigyne similar to THIRATOSCIRTINES, palp - decisively AMYCINES -
cf. for instance Agelista. Transfer tentative.

Gen. Urupuyu Ruiz & Maddison, 2015
Type species Urupuyu antisana (3 species)
See more species at - Urupuyu+M-in
A-B, E - Urupuyu antisana ,C-D, F - Urupuyu edwardsi.
SOURCE: Ruiz & Maddison, 2015: Zootaxa 4040(3): 255, f. 1-3, 6-26; 258, f. 4-5, 27-31. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.