Main links: Title page Introduction & guides INDEXES_chapters_&_genera Open PDF printout of this file

Salticidae (Araneae) genera of the world - an atlas
(unfinished manuscript)
by Jerzy Prószyński

Professor Emeritus, Museum and Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
ul. Wilcza 63, 00-679 Warsaw, POLAND

e-mail: jerzy.proszynski@wp.pl

Chapter 19

MYRMARACHNINES
informal group of genera
Version July 25th, 2020


symbol of the supragroup MYRMARACHNOIDA

Composition and searching on this page. Bocus Emertonius [Gabon]Myrmage Myrmagua Myrmanu Myrmapana , Myrmapeni Myrmaplata Cf. Myrmaplata or undescribed - teratological [?] palp Myrmarachne Myrmatheca MYRMAVOLA Myrmele Panachraesta Synemosyna TERMITE MIMIC [Vipin Baliga] Toxeus An ominous case Uncertain genus of MYRMARACHNINES. Read also: Taxonomic position of Myrmarachne and related genera.


Exemplary representatives of the group
A-B, E-F - Myrmarachne cornuta : epigyne and palp, male & female, C - Myrmarachne sp., D - Panachraesta paludosa epigyne and body of female syntype specimen .
SOURCE:. A-B - Edmunds, Proszynski 2003. Bull. British Arachn. Soc. 12 (7): figs 30-39, C - © Photo Marcus Ng, D - Benjamin, 2015b: Journal of Natural History 49(43-44): 2629, f. 13A-B, 14A-G, 15A-H, 16A-D, E-F
© Photo H. K. Tang.

Informal group of genera MYRMARACHNINES

Mutual diagnostic characters of genera included. Genera and species are recognizable by internal structure of epigyne with a pair of sclerotized “pipes” like spermathecae (Figs 45C1-12, 46E-O), running medially along the whole (or majority) of length of epigyne. Palps rather uniform, with oval bulbus encircled (usually twice) by embolus, with spermophor encircling bulbus along it's contour, but making additional thin loop before entering embolus, tibial apophysis short, in majority of genera twisted corkscrew like and with flange, in some genera straight (Figs B1-10). Body often adapted for mimicking various ants, with constrictions variously developed on abdomen and carapace (Figs A1-9, 44A-D).
Description. Main character of this group of genera is "pipe" like spermatheca, sclerotized uniformly along it whole course, beginning near posterior end of epigyne, its beginning indicated by microscopic "scent exuding opening" at the very rim of junction with membranous ducts. Spermathecae display continuous evolution (presented in Figs 45C1-D6, 46E-O) from a pair of straight “pipes” in Myrmage gedongensis (Figs 46E), smooth, of equal width along their whole length, through slight terminal dilatation, to formation of a globular, terminal chamber of different size at the distal (anterior) end - small as in Toxeus maxillosus C. L. Koch, 1846, (Fig 46H), somewhat bigger terminal chamber in Emertonius shelfordi (Peckham & Peckham, 1907) (Fig 46G), to caricature-like monster of a pair of huge balloons, tightly pressed, atop microscopic, thread like, short proximal parts of spermathecal pipes in Myrmatheca alticephalon (Yamasaki & Ahmad, 2013) (Fig 46F). Another direction of evolution of tubular spermathecae is development of a single loop-like detour in the anterior one-third of length of “pipes”, as in MYRMAVOLA yamasakii Prószyński, 2016 (Fig 46I), finally reaching diversified stage of a complicated double spiral detour in over hundred species of Myrmarachne sensu stricto (Figs 46J-O) (a modification of that plan is detour parallel to axis of “pipes” in Myrmanu nubilis (Wanless, 1978). Ducts are almost unknown, due to their membranous, transparent walls, visible only on cleared epigyne mounted in microscopic slides, stained in "Chlorazol black E" - they make huge but irregular coils, running from practically invisible copulatory opening, usually tight slit like, pressed to median septum of epigyne and joining spermathecae at their indistinct proximal end. The above description corrects popular interpretations limiting "spermathecae" to distal (anterior) end of pipes, in front of their anterior detour. Epigyne itself is little specific, with two large white membranous "windows" (sometimes merged into single, large "window") and single, sclerotized pocket, in some species divided into a pair of pockets. Epigyne may help in preliminary identification, but is insufficient for identification of 160 recognizable species of MYRMARACHNINES. WARNING: preparations of epigyne not cleared of soft tissues, or examination of spermathecae translucent through tegument of epigyne, as in hundreds of drawings in Wanless (1978), are not sufficient for identification of species.
In difference to structures of epigyne, males palps (Figs 445B1-10) are of little help in identification, they characterize group of genera as a whole and are poor indicator of genera diversity, being largely uniform they display only minor differences in shape of tibial apophysis and additional loop of spermophor. Bulbus is encircled by loose loop of embolus, usually double, embolus is hair thin, covered by semitransparent sheath. Tibial apophysis is short, in Myrmarachne twisted like corkscrew, in other genera straight. Males’ chelicerae in some genera are enormously elongated, with multiple isolated teeth (true "pluridentati"). Body usually ant-like, with both carapace and abdomen constricted (Figs 45A1-8, 46A-D); since body appearance is adapted to mimicking ants, the same habitus may repeat in different species adjusted to the same model ant. To check diversity of diagnostic characters in ALL recognizable species of this group of genera - see file. Myrmarachne-Q and Taxonomic position of Myrmarachne and related genera.
Relationship: Placement of MYRMARACHNINES, LIGONIPEINES and BELIPPINES is unclear. Because of embolus encircling bulbus and presence of small additional loop of spermophor I assume tentatively that may be distantly related to AMYCINES, although there are no evidences yet of membranous distant haematodocha, place of origin of embolus from bulbus is not yet documented. On the other hand I do not see slightest morphological evidence that MYRMARACHNINES may be related to ASTIOIDA, as suggested by Maddison (2015 and some earlier papers), possibly Maddison was inspired by long chelicerae of male Orthrus (fig. G) with a long row of numerous, separate teeth - if so that character appears frequently in many unrelated genera and has no phylogenetic importance.
ADDITIONAL NOTE. MYRMARACHNINE were object of over ten years war between arachnologists, with an aggressive party hating statements and with denying that precise identification of genera and species of this group is impossible without documentation of internal structure of epigyne. An advice to onlookers: do not accept any statement without proofs. Demand documentation to every statement.

Gen. Bocus Peckham & Peckham, 1892
Type species Bocus excelsus (3 recognizable species)
See more species at
Bocus-Q+M

ATTENTION: lenght of some specimens reaches 1,5 to 2 cm.
A-C - Bocus excelsus ? Luzon: La Mesa, (shape of sternum is considered diagnostic), C - Bocus sp. Brunei, D - Bocus sp. from Panay Is.(1,5 cm long).
SOURCE:. A-C - ©Photo M. Freudenschuss, D - ©Photo Koh J. 2013: 176, D - ©Photo Isabell Frank. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Gen. Emertonius Peckham & Peckham, 1892
Type species Emertonius exasperans (7 recognizable species)
See more species at Emertonius-Q+M

A-B - Emertonius exasperans from Bali, C- Emertonius exasperans lectotype female - [designated by Wanless], D - same lectotype specimen - epigyne by Prószyński, E - same specimen [but misplaced as Myrmarachne], F-H - Emertonius [?] malayanus, I-K - Emertonius exasperans from Bali, palp and chelicera, L - Emertonius sp. from Vietnam.
SOURCE:. A-B -Photo by D. Knowles, C - Peckham , D - Prószyński & Deeleman-Reinhold, 2010: 164-167, 169-171, F-H - Edmunds & Prószyński, E - Wanless 1978b: 235, f. 2A-E, I-L - Hill & Otto (2015). Peckhamia 131.1: 3, fig, 1.3 (L -Photo signed by Paul Bertner). All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.
-

[Gen. sp. - Gabon] Maddison, 2016
Representative species - see below.(1 recognizable species)

DIAGNOSIS. Unusual body shape, especially deep and narrow thoracal constriction, suggest new genus. Pending further study.

Gen [Gabon] sp. n. : Undescribed - "78, Myrmarachne sp., female, Gabon: Ngouniť: Waka Nat. Park" (similar body shape - see Myrmaplata hispidacoxa)
SOURCE: Maddison 2015. Journal of Arachnology. 43: 231-292, f. 78. . All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Gen. Myrmage Prószyński, 2016
Type species Myrmarachne gedongensis Badcock, 1918 comb. n.(1 recognizable species)
See more species at Myrmage-Q+M

A - Myrmage sp. (female, from Sabah, Danum Valley) B-C, D - Myrmage gedongensis (membranous ducts, unproperly stained, are visible as weak shadows), E-G - same, male, H-L - Myrmage gedongendis (male, from Sabah, Danum Valley, M7 - Myrmage sp . (female, from Sabah, Danum Valley).
SOURCE: A, H-L - - ©Photo P. Koomen, B-D - .Yamasaki & Ahmad 2013. Zootaxa 3710: 524, f. 8, 15-16. © 2013 Magnolia Press, E-G - Edmunds & Prószyński 2003. © Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society, 12(7): 308, f. 48-52. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Gen. Myrmagua Prószyński, 2016
Type species Myrmarachne guaranitica (1 recognizable species)

See more species at Myrmagua-Q+M

Myrmagua guaranitica [from Argentina]
SOURCE: . Galiano M.E. 1969b. Rev. Mus. Argentino Cienc. Natur., Entomol. 3 (2): 143, figs 5-6, 69-70 .All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Gen. Myrmanu Prószyński, 2016
Type species Myrmarachne nubilis (2 recognizable species)
See more species at Myrmanu-Q+M

A-E - Myrmanu nubilis [from Madagascar].
SOURCE: Wanless 1978a. Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.): 33, (1): 112-113, figs 71d-f, 72d-f. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Gen. Myrmapana Prószyński, 2016
Type species Myrmarachne panamensis (5 recognizable species)
See more species at Myrmapana-Q

A-D - Myrmapana panamensis.
SOURCE: Galiano, 1969. Revista del Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia (Ent.) 3: 136, f. 11-12, 21-23, 34-35, 42, 46-48, 62, 66. By permission of Dra ©Cristina Scioscia. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Gen. Myrmapeni Prószyński, 2016
Type species Myrmarachne penicillata (6 recognizable species)
See more species at Myrmapeni-Q+M

A-B - .Myrmapeni chickering, C-E - Myrmapeni penicillata, F-G - Myrmapeni borneensis, H-J - Myrmapeni sumana.
SOURCE: A-B - Galiano, 1969: 124, f. 7-10, 26-27, 38, 53-55, 61, 65 (159-166,), C-E - Galiano, 1969: 168-169, 175-177), F-G - .Yamasaki & Ahmad [2013] 514, f. 10A-G, H-J - Galiano 1974b. Physis, Sec. C. 33 (87): 221-227, f. 1-12. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Gen. Myrmaplata Prószyński, 2016
Type species Salticus plataleoides (5 recognizable species)
See more species at Myrmaplata-Q+M

A-E - Myrmaplata plataleoides, F-G - Myrmaplata aureonigra,H - Myrmaplata hispidacoxa, .I-K - Myrmaplata turriformis.

SOURCE:. A-E - ©Photo H.K. Tang, C-E - Prószyński in Edmunds & Prószyński 2003. Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society,12: 298-301, f. 1-7; 306-322, figs 117-121,. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Cf. Myrmaplata or undescribed - teratological[?] palp

A-D - Cf. Myrmaplata with teratological [?] palp -(Philippines-Luzon Biak na Bato near Santol cave. ©Photo J. Nigl received from M. Freudenschuss). All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.
COMMENT: Strange and important specimen from the collection of Mr. M. Freudenschuss, from Philippines. Body appearance resembling genus Myrmaplata, tibial apophysis resembling Myrmarachne, but I cannot recollect seeing any bulbus with thick apophysis and embolus of the kind displayed on above illustrations. I suspect that these can be misdevelop, or either represent unknown genus.

Gen. Myrmarachne MacLeay, 1839 s. str.
Type species Myrmarachne melanocephala (103 recognizable species)

See more species at Myrmarachne-Q+M

REMARK: genus includes now groups of species: tristis and formicaria delimited by Wanless 1978a.
Species from other groups are now transferred to genera delimited by Prószyński 2016: Toxeus -Q, Myrmage, Myrmagua, Myrmanu, Myrmapana, Myrmapeni, Myrmaplata, Myrmatheca, Myrmavola, Myrmele, see also genera and Belippo and Emertonius. Acronymic genus names beginning with "Myrma-" indicate close relationships (whenever their usage is nomenclatorically possible).

Remarks. Controversial issues concerning genus Myrmarachne are discussed at NEOTYPE , see also controversial matching of "Myrmarachne"gorontaloensis.

36
.Original illustrations to description of "neotype" specimens of Myrmarachne melanocephala - from various distant localities: upper A-H - drawings, lower A-H - photos of types of supposed synonym species. Upper A- specimens from Sri Lanka, only - female, A-D - epigyne (A & B - actually two different species, C & D - internal epigyne structure of the specimen B, dorsal & ventral view). Lower A-H- "collective image" - the present appearance of the "type specimen", assumed (without any proof) to be synonyms ( M. providens, M. contracta and unidentified old specimen from Bintang Island in Indonesia).
SOURCE: Edwards & Benjamin, 2009: Zootaxa 2309: 5, f. 1A-H, 2A-D, 3A-D, 4A-E, 5A-D ©Magnolia Press. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.


Checking false synonym procedure: A-B - Myrmarachne ramosa, B-C - differences in internal structure of epigyne between M. ramosa (B) and M. melanocephala (C) - excludes possibility of conspecificity.
SOURCE: A-B - Prószyński in Edmunds, M. & Prószyński, J. (2003). Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 12: 301, f. 8-29, Edwards & Benjamin, 2009: Zootaxa 2309: 5, f. 5C. ©Magnolia Press. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

A - Myrmarachne melanocephala - specimens from Sri Lanka, B - Myrmarachne cf. ramosa from Singapore, C - Myrmarachne formicaria from Europe. D-F, H - Myrmarachne tristis, G - Myrmarachne formicaria.
I-R - Diversity of internal structure of epigyne in 103 species of Myrmarachne: I - M. lambirensis, J - M. sabahna, K - M. acutidens, L-M - M. acromegalis
, N - Myrmarachne assimilis, O - Myrmarachne biseratensis, P - Myrmarachne cornuta, Q - M. macrognatha, R - Myrmarachne hanoi.
SOURCE: A - © Photo S. Benjamin, B - © Photo H.K. Tang, C - © Photo J. Lissner, D-F, H - Proszynski. Ann. zool., 2003, 51, 3: 108, figs 446-452. G - Zabka. 1997. Fauna Polski 19: 142, f. 216-221, M56 - Yamasaki, Ahmad 2013. Zootaxa 3710 (6): 547-549. © 2013 Magnolia Press,
Yamasaki, Edwards 2013. Flores. ZooKeys 299: 11-15, f 33–45. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Myrmarachne species unclassified because diagnostic drawings are unclear.

Myrmarachne maratha Tikader, 1973, M. orientales Tikader, 1973, M. poonaensis Tikader, 1973, M. schenkeli Peng X., Li S., 2002, M. striatipes (Koch L., 1879).

Myrmarachne species unclassified because females are unknown, or spermophor is not visible on palp drawings

Myrmarachne bicolor (Koch L., 1879), M. bakeri Banks, 1930, M. bidentata Banks, 1930, M. caliraya Barrion, Litsinger, 1995, M. crassembola Yamasaki, Ahmad, 2013, M. dilatata (Karsch, 1880), M. linguiensis Zhang Y, Song D., Zhu M., 1992, M. myrmicaeformis (Lucas, 1869), M. nigella Simon, 1901, M. opaca (Karsch, 1880) , M. tagalica Banks, 1930, M. thaii Zabka, 1985.

Myrmarachne species pending revision,
or with drawings not allowed to be displayed here.

Myrmarachne aenescens Simon, 1901 , M. alticeps (Thorell, 1890), Myrmarachne aurea Ceccarelli, 2010; M. bengalensis Tikader, 1973, M. bicurvata (Pickard-Cambridge O., 1869), M. brevis Xiao X., 2002, M. capito (Thorell, 1890), M. cognata (Koch L., 1879), M. consobrina Denis, 1955, M. debilis (Thorell, 1892), M. decorata Reimoser, 1927, M. denticulata (Karsch, 1880), M. dirangicus Bastawade, 2002, M. erythrocephala (Koch L., 1879), , M. exultans Caporiacco, 1949, M. formosa (Thorell, 1892), M. furcata (Karsch, 1880), M. gurgulla Ceccarelli, 2010, M. hidaspis Caporiacco, 1935, M. hoffmanni , M. hidaspis , M. hoffmanni Strand, 1913 , M. jacobsoni Reimoser, 1925, M. jugularis (Simon, 1900), M. kochi Reimoser, 1925 , M. laeta (Thorell, 1887), M. leptognatha (Thorell, 1890), M. luctuosa (Koch L., 1879), M. ludhianensis Sadana, Gupta, 1998, M. lupata (Koch L., 1879), M. mandibularis (Thorell, 1890), M. manducator (Westwood, 1841), M. megachelae Ganesh Kumar, Mohanasundaram, 1998 , M. nemorensis (Peckham, Peckham, 1892), M. obscura (Taczanowski, 1871), M. paviei (Simon, 1886), M. pectorosa (Thorell, 1890), M. prava (Karsch, 1880), M. prognatha (Thorell, 1887), M. pumilio (Karsch, 1880), M. rhopalota (Thorell, 1895), M. roeweri Reimoser, 1934, M. rubra Ceccarelli, 2010, M. sansibarica Strand, 1910, M. septemdentata Strand, 1907, M. simoni (Koch L., 1879), M. simonis (Herman, 1879), M. vehemens Fox,1937, M. vestita (Thorell, 1895).

Myrmarachne species dubia
(no diagnostic drawings and no specimens are available in collections).

Myrmarachne albocincta (Koch C.L., 1846), M. annandalei (Simon, 1901), M. attenuata (Karsch, 1880), M. cuprea (Hogg, 1896), M. formica (Doleschall, 1859), M. formosana (Matsumura, 1911), M. himalayensis (Narayan, 1915), M. incerta (Narayan, 1915), M. lugens (Thorell, 1881), M. lurida (Simon, 1885), M. macleayana (Bradley, 1876), M. paivae (Narayan, 1915), M. patellata (Strand, 1907), M. pectorosa (sternodes) (Thorell, 1890), M. pygmaea (Thorell, 1894), M. radiata (Thorell, 1894), M. ramunni (Narayan, 1915), M. satarensis (Narayan,1915), M. tayabasana Chamberlin, 1925, M. transversa (Mukerjee, 1930), M. uniseriata (Narayan, 1915).

REFERENCES (for Myrmarachne).
Benjamin S.P. 2015.Journal of natural History: 1-58, plates 1-41.
Prószynski J., Deeleman-Reinhold C.L. 2010. Vol. 19. N. 3: P. 174-178. Figs 113-126.
Edmunds M., Prószynski J. 2003. Vol. 12, N. 7. P. 297-322.
Wanless F.R. 1978a. Vol. 33. N. 1. P.18-27, 28-97. Figs 10-60.
Prószyński, J. (1971e). Catalogue of Salticidae (Aranei) specimens kept in major collections of the world. Annales Zoologici, Warszawa 28: 367-519.
Simon E. 1901-1903. P. 504-505.

Gen. Myrmatheca Prószyński, 2016
Type species Myrmarachne alticephalon (2 recognizable species)
See more species at Myrmatheca-Q+M

A-C - Myrmatheca alticephalon palp.
SOURCE: A-B - Yamasaki & Ahmad, 2013, C - Maddison 2015. Journal of Arachnology. 43: 231-292, f. 79. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Gen. MYRMAVOLA* Prószyński, 2016
Type species Damoetas galianoae sensu Prószyński, 2001 (8 recognizable species)
See more species at Myrmavola-Q+M
[a WSC synonym Myrmavola Prószyński, 2016 = Hermosa Peckham & Peckham, 1892 (Marusik & Blick, 2019: 90)]

A-D - MYRMAVOLA galianoae, E-G - - MYRMAVOLA christae, E-G - -MYRMAVOLA volatilis, H-I - . .MYRMAVOLA yamasaki Prószynski 2001 sp. n. [misidentified as Myrmarachne mariaelenae by Yamasaki & Ahmad 2013, J - .MYRMAVOLA brevichelicera.
SOURCE:. A-G - Prószynski, 2001. Annales Zoologici, 51: 519-520, f. 1-10, H-I - Zabka 1985. Ann. zool., 39, 11: ff. 368-371, J-N - Yamasaki, Ahmad 2013. Zootaxa 3710 (6): 515-518, f 11A–G, 12A–F. © 2013 Magnolia Press. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.
-----------------------------------------
*FOOTNOTE. one of several "acronymic-genus" serial names which  “…should be ignored by the community” because “… brings nothing but chaos in salticid systematicsand “… is nothing but scientific malpractice" by Kropf et al. [12 other signatories]. That article initiated character assasasination drive against Prószyński, which was subsequently refuted by Breitling, R. (2019c) and Prószyński, J. (2019), but followed by two co-signatories of Kropf paper (Blick, T. & Marusik, Y. M. (2018).and Marusik, Y. M. & Blick, T. (2019)). While merits of Blick and Marusik could be disputed, they violate ICZN-Code-of-Ethics-points 3, 4, 5, 6.

Gen. Myrmele Prószyński, 2016
Type species Myrmele peckhami (4 recognizable species)
See more species at Myrmele-Q+M

A-B - Myrmele peckhami, C-E - Myrmele eugenei*, E - Myrmele andringitra.
SOURCE: All drawings from Wanless 1978a. 33, (1): 115-117, figs 75a-g, 76 a-e, + b) 119-121, ff. 79A-I, 80A-E. . All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.
---------------------------------
*FOOTNOTE. Indomitable editors of the WSC displayed once more value of their spirit replacing species name "eugenei" (introduced by Wanless 1978a: 115) with the following comments :
"Myrmele rufescens (Simon, 1900)
Myrmarachne eugenei Wanless, 1978a: 115, f. 75A-G, 76A-E, pl. 2e-f (Tf from Emertonius, Dm; replacement name, preoccupied in Myrmarachne by Thorell, 1877). Myrmele eugenei Prószyński, 2016: 14 (T from Myrmarachne; N.B.: replacement name now superfluous)." If the nomenclature could be complicated once more - why to resign from pleasure. Who made that change? How is it supported by diagnostic characters? Who cares!
---------------------------------

Gen. Panachraesta Simon, 1900
Type species Panachraesta paludosa (1 recognizable species)
See more species at Panachraesta-Q+M

SYNONYMS: Panachraesta paludosa Simon, 1900b: 405 (Df).
Panachraesta paludosa: Simon, 1901a: 504, f. 596-597 (f).
Panachraesta paludosa: Prószynski, 1987: 74 (f unnumbered)
Myrmarachne paludosa: Benjamin 2015: 21-26, illustrations 13a-b (do Figs 14a-16d show DIFFERENT SPECIES mixed up?).
Remarks. This monotypic genus does resemble MYRMARACHNINES by epigyne with two white "windows" and translucent, long "pipes" of spermathecae (Figure 74). The internal structure of epigyne and palps were studied recently by Benjamin 2015: 21, his drawings of spermatheca (fig. 15E-H) indicate resemblance to genus Myrmage Prószyński, 2016c, the appearance of palp (fig. 16A-C) does not contradicting that possibility. They could be even congeneric. There is also some similarity to some Toxeus (T. cuneatus (Badcock, 1918), comb. n. or T. jajpurensis (Prószynski, 1992), comb. n.). However, his excellent documentation seem to indicate mixing up several species of the genus, in particular female (his Figs 14a-16d), show different shape of abdomen, broadest at 2/3rd of its length and triangular posterior tip of abdomen. That could possibly be explanable if the photographed female was pregnant, with abdomen swollen with eggs - but that need confirmation.While placement in Myrmage or Toxeus require confirmation, the transfer of Panachraesta paludosa to the genus Myrmarachne is not accepted, and the original combination is hereby reinstated, pending further research.

A-F - Panachraesta paludosa: A-B - two females in a single vial in the Simon's collection in the MNHN-Paris, apparently syntypes,C-D - internal structure of epigyne in two females. E-F - photo of two females - are they conspecific? G - male - is it conspecific? congeneric? matching of any of two females?
SOURCE: A - .Proszynski 1987. Atlas : 74, C-D - Benjamin, 2015b, Journal of Natural History 49(43-44): 2629, f. 13A-B, 14A-G, 15A-H, 16A-D2629, f. 13A-B, 14A-G, 15A-H, 16A-D. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Gen. Synemosyna Hentz, 1846
Type species Synemosyna formica (17 species)
See more species at Synemosyna-Q+M

COMMENT: Synemosyna formica - type species of the genus Synemosyna is transferred to MYRMARACHNINES because of parallel "pipes-like" spermathecae with anterior detour, shown on drawing of Galiano, also body shape fit that group. The genus Synemosyna is apparently an assemblage of species belonging to various genera and needs revision.

Synemosyna sp.
SOURCE: Maddison 2015. Journal of Arachnology. 43: 292, f. 41-42. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

A-D - Synemosyna formica.
SOURCE: A-C - Galiano M. E. 1966b. Rev. Mus. Argent. Cienc. Nat. Entomol. 1 (6): 343, 357, f 1-4, 36-37, 50-51, 62, D - Kaston, 1948: 448, f. 1609-1610, 1623-24. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Gen. TERMITE MIMIC [Vipin Baliga]
Representative species [Baliga] sp [ter-mim].(1 recognizable species)

DIAGNOSIS. Exemplary documentation of a very unusual spider - termite mimicking and termites hunting, living on bark of trees in S India.

A-D - Undescribed termite mimic, coded as Gen [Baliga] sp [ter-mim] from: S-Kodagu District, Karnataka. India.
SOURCE: ©Photo Vipin Baliga. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.
ATTENTION: The above magnificent photos convey sufficient information for description of a very unusual spider - termite mimicking and termites hunting (apparently new!), living on bark of trees in S India. Unfortunately without documentation of palp the spider cannot be classified properly and lack of preserved type specimen makes formal description impossible. The photograph of environment will hopefully permit collecting and study more specimens.

Gen. Toxeus Koch C.L., 1846
Type species Toxeus maxillosus (10 recognizable species)
See more species at Toxeus-Q+M An ominous case


SOURCE T - .114 - 115-119 - , 120-127 Yamasaki, Ahmad 2013. Zootaxa 3710 (6): 538-541, f 30A–G, 31A–E, 42A–F. © 2013 Magnolia Press +b) ©Photo H.K. Tang and ©Photo Marcus Ng. :. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

A-F - Toxeus maxillosus (C-E - female, B, G - male), G-I - Toxeus hirsutipalpi, J-L - Toxeus cuneatus.
SOURCE:. A- ©Photo and Marcus Ng, B-C - ©Photo H.K. Tang ©Photo H.K. Tang, D-F - Yamasaki, Ahmad 2013. Zootaxa 3710 (6): 538-541, f 30A–G, 31A–E, 42A–F. © 2013 Magnolia Press, G-L - Proszynski in Edmunds & Proszynski in .Bull. British Arachn. Soc. 12 (7): f. 56-63. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

Gen. Uncertain genus of MYRMARACHNINES
by Davies Todd, Zabka, 1989 (1 species)
REMARK. There is single species described, pending further research.

A-B - Uncertain genus.
SOURCE: Davies Todd V., Zabka M. 1989. Mem. Queensland Mus., Brisbane, 27 (2): 203, t. 10.. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.