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Salticidae (Araneae) genera of the world - an atlas
(unfinished manuscript)
by Jerzy Prószyński

Professor Emeritus, Museum and Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
ul. Wilcza 63, 00-679 Warsaw, POLAND

e-mail: jerzy.proszynski@wp.pl
 

Chapter 22
BALLINES
informal group of genera
Version May 31, 2020


symbol of the supragroup HISPONINES-EUOPHRYOIDA

Composition and searching on this page: Afromarengo Attidops Ballus Baviola Colaxes Copocrossa Cynapes Goleta Homalattus (no species recognizable) Indomarengo Leikung Mantisatta Marengo Pachyballus Padilla Peplometus Philates Planiemen Sadies Variratina.

Exemplary representatives of the group
A-E - Ballus chalybeius (A - female, B - male).
SOURCE: A - ©Photo J. Lissner , B - ©Photo A. Henrard,, C-E - Proszynski 2003b, figs 99-100. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used here by their courtesy.

BALLINES informal group of genera
Database contains 18 recognizable genera, 68 species

Mutual diagnostic characters of genera included. BALLINES differs distinctly from EUOPHRYINES by internal structure of epigyne, which have prominent ducts running from anteriorly located copulatory openings posterior ward, straight at beginning, but in the mid-length of epigyne pass into entangled coils, spermathecae have various shape. That is rather comparable with DENDRYPHANTINES and departs from globular spermathecae and short, usually not entangled, ducts of EUOPHRYINES. Males resemble EUOPHRYINES, their embolus coiled spring-like atop bulbus is positioned somewhat diagonally in some genera, other small difference is almost straight, or slightly waving palp spermophor. Separation of BALLINES reduces inconveniently large number of species in EUOPHRYINES, but seems to have little phylogenetical significance. Tibia I is broadened in both sexes, sometimes almost circular and flat (analogy to LIGONIPEINES), legs I distinctly longest and more robust than remaining. Habitus variable.

Gen. Afromarengo Benjamin, 2004
Type species Afromarengo coriacea (3 recognizable species)
See more species at Afromarengo-Q+M

A - Afromarengo coriacea, B-D - Afromarengo bimaculata.
SOURCES: A -- Wanless 1978d. Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.), 33 (4): 261-263, ff. 1A-J , B-D - Wes.& Had. 2013. Afr. Invert.: 54 (1):180-183, f 1, 13, 14, 22–29. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

Gen. Attidops Banks, 1905
Type species Attidops youngi.(4 species)
See more species at
Attidops-Q+M

A-B - Attidops youngi, C-D - Attidops nickersoni, E-F - Attidops nickersoni male and female.
SOURCE: A-D - Edwards 1999a. J. Arachnol. 27(1): 10, 12, f.2, 4-7,14-17; 12, f. 8-9, 18-21, E-F - ©Photo Edwards. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

Gen. Ballus C.L. Koch, 1850
Type species Ballus chalybeius (5 recognizable species)
See more species at
Ballus-Q+M

C-E - Ballus chalybeius.
SOURCES:C-E - Proszynski 2003b, figs 99-100. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

Gen. Baviola Simon, 1898
Type species Baviola braueri (3 recognizable species)
See more species at
Baviola-Q+M

A-B - Baviola braueri, B - Baviola vanmoli.
SOURCES: A-B - Proszynski J. 1987. Atlas ... : 6, 7, B - Saaristo 2010: 176-177, f 27.12-15. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

Gen. Colaxes Simon, 1900
Type species Colaxes nitidiventris (4 recognizable species)
See more species at Colaxes-Q+M

A - Colaxes nitidiventris, B - Colaxes benjamini.
SOURCES: A - Proszynski J. 1987. Atlas ...: 16, B - Wesołowska & Haddad 2013. Afr. Invert.: 54 (1): 188-191, f 4–6, 16, 43–48. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

Gen. Copocrossa Simon, 1901
Type species (1 recognizable species)
See more species at
Copocrossa-Q+M

A - Copocrossa tenuilineata, B - Copocrossa sp [one of them - bug mimic].
SOURCES: A - Davies Todd, Zabka 1989. Mem. Queens. Mus., 27 (2): 205, t 12, B - ©Photo I.R. Macaulay and ©Photo R. Whyte. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

Gen. Cynapes Simon, 1900
Type species Cynapes wrighti (3 recognizable species)
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Cynapes-Q+M

A-C - Cynapes wrighti, D - Cynapes [?] baptizatus.
SOURCES: A - Zabka 1988b. Ann. zool. 41 (14): 446-448, f 71-73, B-C - Proszynski 1984c. Atlas ...: 32, D - Wanless 1979a. Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.)., London, 37 (1): 68-70, ff. 1A-K, . All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

Gen. Goleta Peckham & Peckham, 1894
Type species Goleta workmani (1 recognizable species)
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Goleta-Q+M

A-E - Goleta workmani.
SOURCES: Proszynski 1984c. Atlas ...: 53-54.. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

Gen. dubius Homalattus White, 1841
Type species Homalattus pustulatus(6 misplaced species)
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Homalattus-Q+M

A-C- Facsimile of the successful PhD Thesis, including the only existing original drawings of Homalattus pustulatus White 1841 (A), identificatory data of the PHD Thesis (B) and a page from the thesis commenting synonymisation (C), D - recent drawings of a Pachyballus cordiformis, resembling features of drawings by White, corresponding with description old drawings of White 1841, E-F - misinterpretation of Homalattus by Peckham and Peckham (epigyne in F resemble Rhene), G - facsimile of characters of males of two species of Rhene (correctly identified!) by Peckham and Peckham, H - photographs of female of a Rhene from Singapore, "cladistically proved" [!] to be junior synonym of Homalattus.
SOURCES:- A-C- PhD thesis, University of Sao Paulo, 2010 (A - original drawings by White, 1846: Annals and Magazine of Natural History 18: 180, pl. 2, f. 6),H4 -D - Wesolowska & Cumming, 2011: 7: 87, f 40-45, E - Peckham & Peckham 1885a: 29, t 1, f 3, F-G - Peckham & Peckham, 1903: Transactions of the Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters 14: 173-278. 218-219, pl. 24, H - © Photo H.K. Tang. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

COMMENT: A success of cladistic taxonomy: PhD degree conferred for (among other) nonsensical synonymy of the genus Rhene (67 species) with Homalattus (nomen dubium).

Gen. Indomarengo Benjamin 2004
Type species Indomarengo sarawakensis (1 recognizable species)
See more species at
Indomarengo-Q+M

No Publisher's licence for copying diagnostic drawings. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

Gen. Leikung Benjamin, 2004
Type species Leikung porosa (1 recognizable species)
See more species at
Leikung-Q+M

A-C - Leikung porosa, D - Leikung sp. ©Photo P. Koomen..
SOURCES: A-C - Prószynski. & Deeleman-Reinhold, 2012. Arthr. select. 21(1): 41-42, f 66-70, D - ©Photo P. Koomen. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

Gen. Mantisatta Warburton, 1900
Type species (2 recognizable species)
See more species at
Mantisatta-Q+M

A - Mantisatta trucidans ©Photo Koh J. 2013: 199, Brunei, B-C - Mantisatta longicauda from Philippines - Los Banos (type specimens, quick sketches), D - same, females & male, E - female, note underdevelopment of left leg I (regenerating?).
SOURCES: A - ©Photo Koh J. 2013: 199, Brunei, B-C - quick sketches by Prószyński, Internet, D - ©Photo R. R. Jackson, E - ©Photo W. P. Maddison). All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

Gen. Marengo Peckham, Peckham, 1892
Type species Marengo crassipes (x recognizable species)
See more species at
Marengo-Q+M

A - Marengo crassipes, B - same, lectotype, C - Marengo sp. from Kenya, D-E - Marengo zebra - holotype, male, F-G - Marengo zebra - paratype, female.
SOURCES: A - Wanless F.R. 1978d.Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.), 33 (4): 264- 266, ff. 3A-F; 4A-F,t. 1d-f; 2a-c, B - Proszynski J. 1984c. Atlas ...: 78, C - ©Photo R. R. Jackson, F-G - Sudhin, P. P., Nafin, K. S., Benjamin, S. P. & Sudhikumar, A. V. (2019b). Arthropoda Selecta 28(3): 437, f. 1-17, 20-23. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

Gen. Pachyballus Simon, 1900
Type species Pachyballus transversus (5 recognizable species)
See more species at
Pachyballus-Q+M

A-C - Pachyballus oyo, D - Pachyballus transversus, E - Pachyballus sp.
SOURCES: A-C - Wesolowska, Russel-Smith.: Ann. zool. 61(3): 589-590, f 126-135, 232-234, D - Simon 1901a: 482, f 570-571, E - Maddison 2015. Journal of Arachnology. 43: 231-292, f. 60.. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

Gen. Padilla Peckham & Peckham, 1894
Type species Padilla armata (x recognizable species)
See more species at
Padilla-Q+M

A-C - Padilla armata, D-F - Padilla cornuta.
SOURCES: B-C, E - Proszynski 1984c Atlas ...: 95, D - Wanless, Lubin. 1986. J. Nat. Hist. 20: 1211-1220, f 3A, C, A, F - Andriamalala 2007 Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 58: 268, f 18. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

Gen. Peplometus Simon, 1900
Type species Peplometus biscutellatus [species inquirenda] (1 recognizable [?] species)
See more species at
Peplometus-Q+M

A - Peplometus chlorophthalmus, B-D - Peplometus sp. (Congo Rep.).
SOURCES: A -Simon E. 1901a. 2(3-4): 486, f 566-56, B-D - ©Photo T. Szuts. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

Gen. Philates Simon, 1900
Type species (x recognizable species)
See more species at
Philates-Q+M

A-D - Philates grammicus, E-G - Philates proszynskii, H - Philates rafalskii.
SOURCES: A-B -Wanless 1978d. Bull.brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.), 142: 34, f 31a-b, 32a-d., C-D - Proszynski 1987. Atlas ...: 76,
E-H - Zabka M. 1999. Memoirs Queensland Museum, 43(2): 897, f 5A-H. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

Gen. Planiemen Wesolowska & van Harten, 2007
Type species .Planiemen rotundus (1 recognizable species)
See more species at
Planiemen-Q+M

A-C - Planiemen rotundus.
SOURCES: A-C - Wesolowska, van Harten 1994. 86: 65-67, f 133-139 + 65-67, f 133-139. D - ©Photo B. Knoflach. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

Gen. Sadies Wanless, 1983 [1984]
Type species Sadies fulgida (x recognizable species)
See more species at
Sadies-Q+M

A-B - Sadies fulgida, C - Sadies "fulgida" [not conspecific?].
SOURCES: A-C - Wanless 1984c. Ann. Mus. roy. Afr. centr. 241: 12-16, f. 2a-g, 3a-f. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

Gen. Variratina Zhang J., Maddison, 2012
Type species Variratina minuta (1 recognizable species)
See more species at
Variratina-Q+M

Remarks. Close relationships with BALLINES seems uncertain because of shape of epigyne, spermathecae and ducts, also embolus shape does not exactly fit definition.

A-C - Variratina minuta.
SOURCES: Zhang & Maddison, 2012 (palp, epigyne, photo of fresh male and female). Zootaxa 3491: 58, f 272-281. C 2012 . Magnolia Press. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.