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Salticidae (Araneae) genera of the world - an atlas
(unfinished manuscript)
by Jerzy Prószyński
Professor Emeritus, Museum and Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
ul. Wilcza 63, 00-679 Warsaw, POLAND

e-mail: jerzy.proszynski@wp.pl

 Chapter 28
SPARTAEINES
informal group of genera

Version July 18th, 2020


symbol of the genera not classified into supragroups

Composition and searching on this page: Brettus Cocalus Cyrba Gelotia Holcolaetis Meata MeleonMintonia Neobrettus Phaeacius Portia Spartaeus Thrandina Veissella Wanlessia Yaginumanis .

Exemplary representatives of the group
Figure - . C8-C9 - Cyrba algerina, C10-C11 - same, female & male ©Photo J. Lissner (from Spain).
SOURCE. Proszynski 2003a. Annales zoologici. 53 (1): 46-47, figs 153-157, ©Photo J. Lissner. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

SPARTAEINES - informal group of genera

Diagnosis. Remarkably common and stable character is robust embolus, arising antero-laterally and encircling tightly anterior part of bulbus, also spermathecae in form of large globular or oval chamber, occupying large part of epigyne.
Remark. Considered primitive "Basal Salticidae" by Maddison et al. (several papers) on the ground of molecular research, but there are no continuity of morphological diagnostic characters of these genera with other Salticidae, nor does that contribute to taxonomic identification of genera concerned. However, remarkable behavior of spinning web by some Portia seems to be primitive.

Gen. Brettus Thorell, 1895
Type species Brettus cingulatus (7 recognizable species).
See more species at Brettus-Q+M .

A - Brettus cingulatus, B - Brettus albolimbatus, C-F - Brettus cf. albolimbatus, G-I - Brettus celebensis : Proszynski. Internet (from N Sulawesi: Dumoga Bone Nat. Park. Det. Ch. Deeleman-Reinhold), J - Meata typica [for comparison of spermatheca and duct, but body very different], K-M - Brettus gravelyi.
SOURCE. A - Wanless 1979b. Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.): 185-188, f. 1A, C, E, G; 2A-C; 3C-D; 4A-B, C - ©Photo Anurag, D - ©Photo Vipin Baliga, G-I - .Proszynski. Internet, J - Zabka 1985. Ann. zool. 39, 11: 239, ff. 279-282, K - Caleb, in Caleb, Acharya & Kumar, 2018: 232, f. 1-15. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

Gen. Cocalus Koch C.L., 1846
Type species Cocalus concolor (4 recognizable species).
See more species at Cocalus-Q+M.

A - Cocalus concolor (holotype), B-C - Cocalus gibbosus, D - Cocalus menglaensis - epigyne and spermathecae, E - isolated bulbus and embolus, F-G - Cocalus murinus.
SOURCE. A - Proszynski 1984c: 158, B-C - Davies Todd, Zabka 1989. Mem. Queens. Mus., 27 (2): 196, t 4, D-E - Cao, Li & Zabka, 2016. ZooKeys 630: 68-71 , f. 17–18, 43,
F-G - ©Photo H. K. Tang. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

Gen. Cyrba Simon, 1876
Type species Cyrba algerina (8 recognizable species).
See more species at Cyrba-Q+M.

A-B, E - Cyrba algerina, C-D - Cyrba ocellata, F-G - Cyrba ocellata (Tamil Nadu, live and discolored by preservation), H, M - Paracyrba wanlessi [=Cyrba wanlessi ?], J, K - Cyrba boveyi, I, L - Cyrba lineata,
SOURCE. A-B - Proszynski 2003a. Annales zoologici. 53 (1): 46-47, figs 153-157, C-D - Proszynski 1978a: 16, ff. 19, 21-24, E - ©Photo J. Lissner, F-G -
©Photo J. Caleb, H - ©Photo Daiqin Li, I-J - ©Photo C. Haddad, J, K - Wesołowska, Haddad 2009. African Invertebrates, 50(1): 23-26, photo 238, K - Wesołowska, Haddad 2009. Afr. Invert. 50(1): 26-27, f 24-25, L - Wesolowska 2006c. Genus 17(4): 617-620, f 1-5, M - Zabka and Kowacs. (1996).Senckenbergiana Biologica 76: 153-161, f. 1-13. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

COMMENT. Paracyrba wanlessi resembles Cyrba by palps and internal structure of epigyne, also type of abdominal pattern (comparable with Cyrba ocellata = see f. F and H), seems to differ by longer and thinner legs, also lower carapace - f. H).

Gen. Gelotia Thorell, 1890
Type species Gelotia frenata (8 recognizable species).
See more species at Gelotia-Q+M.z.

3
A-B - Gelotia bimaculata, C-D - Gelotia frenata, E-F - Gelotia argenteolimbata, G-H - Gelotia bouchardi, I-J - Gelotia sp., K - Gelotia [?] sp.
SOURCE. A-D - Proszynski 1968a. 77: 11-20, ff. 5, 7, ff. 8, E-F - Prószyński, Deeleman-Reinhold, 2012. Arthr. select. 21(1): 38, 47-58, I-J - Gelotia sp. ©Photo R R. Jackson, J - Maddison 2015. Journal of Arachnology. 43: 231–292, f. 8. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

Gen. Holcolaetis Simon, 1886
Type species Holcolaetis xerampelina (7 recognizable species).
See more species at Holcolaetis-Q+M.

Remark: Maddison 2015 places Holcolaetis in a separate subtribe Holcolaetina
A - Holcolaetis xerampelina, B-C - Holcolaetis zuluensis, D - Holcolaetis vellerea.
SOURCE. A - Wesolowska & Cumming, 2011: J. Afrotrop. Zool. .7:79, f 11-12, B-C - Wesołowska, Haddad 2009. African Invertebrates, 50(1): 47-49, f 83-86, D - ©Photo John and Frances Murphy. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

Gen. Meata Żabka, 1985
Type species Meata typica (2 recognizable species).
See more species at Meata-Q+M .

A - Meata typica, B-C - Meata zabkai, D - Gedea flavogularis, E - Gedea pinguis, F-G - Gedea daoxianensis, H - facsimile.
SOURCE. A - Zabka 1985. Ann. zool. 39, 11: 239, ff. 279-282, B-C - Prószyński, Deeleman-Reinhold, 2010. Arthr. selecta, 19(3): 174, f 107-110, F-G - Yin et al., 2012: Fauna Hunan: Araneae in Hunan: 1370, f. 741a-g, H - Maddison, 2015: Journal of Arachnology 43(3): 24. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

COMMENT. Type species of Meata is known from females only, type species of Gedea only from males (data from World Spider Catalog 2020 ver. 21.0), Maddison, 2015: Journal of Arachnology 43(3): 247 speaks on unpublished molecular data and co-collecting, which are not verifiable documentation. There are no positive data supporting his claims. The only published drawings of epigyne in the whole Gedea genus, by Yin et al., 2012: Fauna Hunan: Araneae in Hunan: 1370, f. 741a-g, repeated by Peng, 2020: Fauna Sinica, Invertebrata 53: 147, f. 94a-f (f. F-G, above) are insufficient.

Gen. Meleon Wanless, 1984
Type species Meleon kenti (1 recognizable species).
See more species at Meleon-Q+M.

A-B - Meleon kenti, C-E - Meleon guinensis.
SOURCE. A-B - Wanless F.R. 1978f. Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.)., London, 34 (3): 90-91, ff. 2 a-d, C-E - Azarkina, Logunov 2010. Afr. Invert. 50(1): 171-173, f 38-39. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

Gen. Mintonia Wanless, 1984
Type species Mintonia tauricornis (9 recognizable species).
See more species at Mintonia-Q+M.

A-C - Mintonia tauricornis, D - Mintonia silvicola, E-G - Mintonia sp Queensland.
SOURCE. A-C - Prószynski, Deeleman-Reinhold, 2012. Arthr. select. 21(1): 43-45, f 87-95, D - Maddison 2015. Journal of Arachnology. 43: 23-292, f. 11, E - ©Photo R. Whyte, F-G - and I.R. Macaulay. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.


Gen. Neobrettus Wanless, 1984
Type species Neobrettus tibialis (6 recognizable species).
See more species at Neobrettus-Q+M.

A-D - Neobrettus tibialis, G-H - Neobrettus sp., I - Neobrettus sp. I - Neobrettus sp.Philippines: Mt. Banaham.
SOURCE. A-D - Proszynski 1978a. Ent. bas. 19-21, f 25-27, B-F - Wanless 1984a. Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.), 46 (2): 183-185, f 24A-H, G - Maddison 2015. Journal of Arachnology. 43: 231-292, f. 10, H - ©Photo Frances & John Murphy, 1997, I -
©Photo R.R. Jackson. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

Gen. Phaeacius Simon, 1900
Type species Phaeacius fimbriatus (12 recognizable species).
See more species at Phaeacius-Q+M .

A-D -Phaeacius fimbriatus, E-F - Phaeacius azarkinae, G-H - Phaeacius malayensis.
SOURCE. A-F -Prószynski, Deeleman-Reinhold, 2012. Arthr. select.21(1): 55, f 130-140 + .19(3): 178, 127-128,
G -© Photo H.K. Tang, H - ©Photo Hirzi Hussain. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

Gen. Portia Karsch, 1878
Type species Portia fimbriata (14 recognizable species).
See more species at Portia-Q+M.

A-B - Portia fimbriata, C-F - Portia labiata (E - Portia labiata - on web, Singapore), G - Portia africana Uganda.
SOURCE. A-B - Davies Todd V., Zabka M. 1989. Mem. Queens. 27 (2): 195, t 3, C - Proszynski 1984c: 26, 111, D - Logunov & Jäger, 2015. Russian Entomological Journal 24(4): 359, f. 47-51. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

Gen. Spartaeus Thorell, 1891
Type species Spartaeus spinimanus (11 recognizable species).
See more species at Spartaeus-Q+M .

A - Spartaeus spinimanus, B-C - - Spartaeus thailandicus : Prószynski Internet drawings: Khao Yai National Park, coll. Deeleman-Reinhold, D - Spartaeus uplandicus: sketches of holotype female, E - Spartaeus sp. Prószynski Internet sketches, F-G- Spartaeus sp. Bali (note large eyes II).
SOURCE. A - Prószynski, Deeleman-Reinhold, 2010. Arthr. selecta.19(3): 180, f 134-137, B-C -Prószynski Internet drawings: Khao Yai National Park, coll. Deeleman-Reinhold, D - Prószynski Internet sketches, E - Prószynski Internet sketches, F-G - © Photo Petot. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

Gen. Taraxella Wanless, 1984
Type species Taraxella solitaria (5 recognizable species).
See more species at Taraxella-Q+M .

A - Taraxella solitaria, B-C - Taraxella sumatrana.
SOURCE. A - Wanless, 1987 Bull. British Mus. (NH) (Zool. ser.) 52(3): 156-157, f 7A-G, B-C - Prószynski Deeleman-Reinhold, 2012. Arthr. select. 21(1): 57-58, f 154-158. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

ALTERNATIVE PLACEMENT - see Thrandina
Gen. Thrandina Maddison, 2006
Type species Thrandina parocula (3 recognizable species).
See more species at Thrandina-Q+M.

REMARKS. Genus originally placed in Lapsiinae by Maddison 2006. Here is alternative display in SPARTAEINES for calling attention to some similarities in spermathecae and general shape of male palps (in spite of presence of prominent tegular apophysis). Grouping of eyes and size of PME resembles Brettus and some other genera. No representative of SPARTAEINES [?] was ever found in Western Hemisphere. (J. Prószynski, 2014-X-31).
A-E - Thrandina parocula, F - Thrandina cosanga.
SOURCE.Maddison W.P. 2006. Zootaxa, 1255: 20, f 2-8; 2012: 3424: 65, f 24-42, 48–52. © Magnolia Press. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

Gen. Veissella Wanless, 1984
Type species Veissella durbani. (2 recognizable species).
See more species at .
z Veissela-Q+M

V
A - Veissella durbani, B-D - Veissella milloti.
SOURCE. A - Wesolowska & Haddad, 2009: 95, f. 205-209, B-D - Logunov & Azarkina, 2007: 16(2): 113, f 107-113. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

Gen. Wanlessia Wijesinghe, 1992
Type species Wanlessia denticulata (1 recognizable species).
See more species at Wanlessia-Q+M .

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A - Wanlessia denticulata, B-C - Wanlessia sedgwicki.
SOURCE. A - Peng X., Tso I., Li S. 2002. Zoological Studies 41 (1): 5, f 17-20, B-C - Wijesinghe, 1992. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology 40(1): 11, f 1-11. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

TWO INTERPRETATIONS OF FEMALES
Gen. Yaginumanis Wanless, 1984
Type species Yaginumanis sexdentatus (3 recognizable species).
See more species at .
z Yaginumanis-Q+M

TWO INTERPRETATIONS OF FEMALE. I - A-B - Yaginumanis sexdentatus - pair matched by Yaginuma, C - same species. II - D-E - female interpreted as Yaginumanis "sexdentatus" by Wanless 1984, E - same species as shown on f. E - labelled "Sitticus" saganus Doenitz & Strand in Boesenberg & Strand, 1906 [not type! misidentified] in the collection of the British Museum - N. H. Museum in London, F - Sitticus saganus the only original picture of the type specimen, which was destroyed in Stuttgart during World War II.
SOURCE. A-B, E - Bohdanowicz, Proszynski 1987. Ann. zool. 41, 2: 46-47, f 1-5; 48, f. 6-8, C - Yaginuma, 1986a: Spiders of Japan in color (new ed.) 224, f. 124.3, D -
Wanless 1984. Bull. brit. Mus. nat. Hist. (Zool.), 46 (2): 153-154, f 6g-i, F - Doenitz & Strand in Boesenberg & Strand, 1906: 394, pl. 9, f. 127. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

COMMENT. One of those entangled cases requiring talent of a detective from a taxonomists. A collection of Salticidae from Japan received from Professor Takeo Yaginuma in 1968 for identification, contained identified couple of Boethus sexdentatus, which I have identified as a new genus and wanted to name for Yaginuma (other new genera in that batch included new genera Helicius and Yaginumaella). Specimens in the collection were drawn in 1970ties and results communicated in due course to Yaginuma and to Wanless. The formal publication was delayed until Mr. A. Bohdanowicz completed part unfinished by me, and ultimately it was published by Bohdanowicz & Prószyński (1987: Ann. zool. 41, 2: 46-47, f 1-5). In the mean time I found and studied in London Natural History Museum a specimen of different species labeled "Sitticus" saganus (f. E) [misdidentified, not type which was destroyed during World War II in Stuttgart NH Museum]. This specimen, which F. R Wanless interpreted as female of Y. yaginumanis (f. D), differs from female specimen sent to me by Yaginuma (f. B) and those published by Yaginuma himself ( f. C, also in papers Yaginuma, 1967a: 54, 61, f. 2.1-9 and 1986a: 224, f. 124.3). The males seems to be conspecific, but females are apparently different, which of them matches male? I enquired with T. Yaginuma about that and he was sure that the couple he sent to me is properly matched. The matter require further research and, preferably, observation of mating.

COMMENT 2. The type specimen of Sitticus saganus was destroyed in Stuttgart NH Museum, bombed during World War II. The only original picture, published in 1906, display color pattern (f. F, above) resembling some Sitticus species, but cannot be identified with the following species of that genus reported from Japan: Sitticus (distinguendus group) avocator, Sitticus (terebratus group) fasciger, Sitticus (penicillatus group) penicillatus, Sitticus (saxicola group) ranieri.