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Salticidae (Araneae) genera of the world - an atlas
(unfinished manuscript)
by Jerzy Prószyński
Professor Emeritus, Museum and Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
ul. Wilcza 63, 00-679 Warsaw, POLAND

e-mail: jerzy.proszynski@wp.p

 Chapter 35
"THIRATOSCIRTINES"[?]
informal group of genera
Version August 8th, 2020


symbol of the genera not classified into supragroups

Composition and searching on this page: Ajaraneola Alfenus Ansienulina Bacelarella Bacelarella-2 [two different genera pending description] Gramenca Lamottella Longarenus Malloneta Nimbarus Pochyta Saraina Tarne Thiratoscirtus.

Exemplary representatives of the group
A - Thiratoscirtus patagonicus, B - same, type specimen, C-E - newly collected African specimens: palp, epigyne and general appearance.
SOURCE. A - Galiano 1963b. Physis, 23 (66): 457-458, t. 39, f 11-14, B-E - ©Photo Szuts. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

"THIRATOSCIRTINES"[?]
informal group of genera

Bodner & Maddison (2012, p. 221-222) proposed a new clade "THIRATOSCIRTINAE", which they consider subfamily, and discuss its evolutionary significance. It is difficult to understand premises for that because their taxonomic documentation is limited to listing genera they propose to include into "THIRATOSCIRTINAE", without taxonomic definition or description, apart from a cladogram based on molecular analyses, whose taxonomic significance is unclear to me. To provide some orientation in their proposal I quote below the taxonomic documentation of all species they consider.


Facsimile of note on "Thiratoscirtinae" by Bodner & Maddison (2012) [which does not constitute description of a subfamily in a sense of International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, requiring precise morphological diagnostic definition and precise differences with other relevant taxa] - since I have no current copyright permission to display the plate, I direct readers to the original publication, I including above thumbnails, which is a free advertisements for that.
SOURCE. Facsimile of Bodner & Maddison (2012: 65: 221) Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 65: 237-238, f. B1-B2. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

COMMENT 1: Good insight into minds of Bodner & Maddison on "Thiratoscirtinae" is the plate (above) with 24 palps and epigyne of unidentified species (three first rows in B-2 are explained in the caption to represent Plexippinae, however, there are only three rows of pictures, so explanation is unintelligible.
COMMENT 2: The mean of communication in zoology is scientific name of a species, that is why correct and precise identification of species is so important. Conveying scientific ideas only with pictures of unidentified species nullify the procedure and invalidate the idea itself.

Remarks on genus Thiratoscirtus and related forms was given by Wesołowska 2011 (below), but she has abstained from supplying taxonomic definition of the group "Thiratoscirtinae" itself. The documentation of Thiratoscirtus patagonicus, the type species of the genus Thiratoscirtus, prepared by Szuts and documenting its African relationships, has been reproduced in the database of Salticidae by Prószynski, 2003b (by kind permission of T. Szuts).

Remarks on genus Thiratoscirtus and related forms was given by Wesołowska 2011(below)
Facsimile of definition of Thiratoscirtus and related forms by Wesolowska and Russel-Smith 2011.
SOURCE: Ann. zool. 61(3): 603-604, f 188-192, 252. .All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy
.

Additional remarks of relationships between genera of "Thiratoscirtinae" and other clades of Salticidae. Morphological documentation available in the literature is insufficient and therefore inconclusive. Structure of epigyne and palps represent two types, which deserve further attention, there are also some rather incompatible species. The most tempting similarity is separation of eyes anterior lateral and posterior lateral by prominent depression, with microscopic size of eyes II, supposedly indicating relationships to fossil Eocene Prolinus, and its extant analogues Tomocyrba and Hispo, looks probable in the case of Massagiris schisma (whose relationship to Thiratoscirtinae is, however, questionable), but is not supported by eyes of Thiratoscirtus and related genera. Coiled embolus may indicate relationships to Euophryinae, but require further documentation of its basis. There is intriguing resemblance in posterior part of epigyne with Asiatic genus Habrocestoides, with curious circular structure inside, but that require further study. In view of very incomplete morphological documentation of diversity in Thiratoscirtinae, no firm conclusion on their placement could be drawn.

Gen. Ajaraneola Wesołowska, Russel-Smith, 2011
Type species Ajaraneola mastigophora (1 recognizable species).
See more at Ajaraneola-Q+M

A-D - .Ajaraneola mastigophora.
SOURCE. Wesolowska, Russel-Smith.Ann. zool. 61(3): 558-559, f 14-20. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy

Gen. Alfenus Simon, 1902
Type species Alfenus calamistratus (2 recognizable species).
See more species at Alfenus-Q+M

A4
A-D - Alfenus calamistratus.
SOURCE. Szuts T., Scharff N. 2005. Acta zool. Acad. Sci. Hungar. 51: 359-361, f 1a,c, 2a-f, 3a-d. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

.

Gen. Ansienulina Wesołowska, 2015
Type species Ansienulina mirabilis (1 recognizable species).
See more species at Ansienulina-Q

A-C - Ansienulina mirabilis.
SOURCE .Wesolowska, 2015: 56(2): 478, f. 1-14. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy
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Gen. Bacelarella Berland, Millot, 1941
Type species Bacelarella fradei (4 recognizable species).
See more species at Bacelarella-Q+M

A-D - Bacelarella fradei [Syntypes], E-I - Bacelarella dracula.
SOURCE. A-D - Proszynski 1987. Atlas: 4. [Syntypes], E-I - Wesołowska, Russel-Smith 2011. Ann. zool. 61(3): 559-561, f 217-218. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy
.

Gen. "Bacelarella-2"[?]
Representative species "Bacelarella"gibbosa (4 recognizable species).
See more species at Bacelarella-conjugans-Q+M - different genus, to be described as new.

A-C - "Bacelarella-2" conjugans, D - -"Bacelarella-2" tentativa (misplaced?).
SOURCE. B8-B11 - Szuts, Jocque 2001. Annls Mus. R. Afr. Centr. (Zool). 285: 82-85, figs 1C-D, 2B-E, 3A, C, H, J, 4B, F, 7A, D, 8A, 9A. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy
.

Gen. "Bacelarella-3"[?]
Representative species "Bacelarella"gibbosa (4 recognizable species).
See more species at Bacelarella-conjugans-Q+M - different genus, to be described as new.

A-D - "Bacelarella-3" gibbosa : [third genus?].
SOURCE. Wesołowska, Edwards 2012. Ann. zool.: 62(4): 735, f 5–11, 111–113. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy
.

Gen. Gramenca Rollard, Wesołowska, 2002
Type species Gramenca prima (1 recognizable species).
See more species at Gramenca-Q+M

Gramenca prima.
SOURCE. Rollard Ch., Wesolowska W. 2002. Zoosystema. Paris, 24 (2): 292-293, figs 7A. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy

Gen. Lamottella Rollard, Wesołowska, 2002
Type species Lamottella longipes (1 recognizable species).
See more species at Lamottella-Q+M

Lamottella longipes.
SOURCE. Rollard Ch., Wesolowska W. 2002. Zoosystema. 24 (2): 296, figs 10A-F. . All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy
.

Gen. Longarenus Simon, 1903
Type species Longarenus brachycephalus (1 recognizable species).
See more species at Longarenus-Q+M

A-E - Longarenus brachycephalus, F - Longarenus sp.
SOURCE. A-D - Wesolowska, Edwards 2012. Ann. zool.: 62(4): 748, f 55–59, 124, E - Szuts 2005 [2007]. Opusc. zool., 36: 89-90, f 17, F - Maddison 2015. Journal of Arachnology. 43: 231–292, f. 122. .. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

Gen. Malloneta Peckham, Peckham, 1901
Type species Malloneta guineensis (1 recognizable species).
See more species at Malloneta-Q+M

A - Malloneta guineensis Lectotype, Freetown [Sierra Leone], B - same, C - Malloneta sp.
SOURCE. A - Proszynski J. 1987. Atlas ...: 62, B - Wesolowska, Edwards 2012. Ann. zool.: 62(4): 750-751, f 60–62, 125, C - Maddison 2015. Journal of Arachnology. 43: 231–292, f. 124. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy
.

Gen. Nimbarus Rollard, Wesołowska, 2002
Type species Nimbarus pratensis (1 recognizable species).
See more at Nimbarus-Q+M

A-B - Nimbarus pratensis, C - cf. Nimbarus sp. [misidentified].
SOURCE. A - Rollard Ch., Wesolowska W. 2002. Zoosystema. Paris, 24 (2): 301-303, f 14A-F, N1 - C - Maddison, W. P., Bodner, M. R. & Needham, K. M. (2008). Salticid spider phylogeny revisited, with the discovery of a large Australasian clade (Araneae: Salticidae). Zootaxa 1893: 52, f. 4. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy
.

Gen. Pochyta Simon, 1901
Type species Pochyta spinosa (9 recognizable species).
See more species at Pochyta-Q+M

A - Pochyta spinosa [from "Guinee franc. Chabanaud, 1929" MNHN. Not a type. Is it correctly identified? ], B-C - Pochyta pulchra, D - cf. "Pochyta" sp. [misidentified] Maddison, W. P., Bodner, M. R. & Needham, K. M.
SOURCE. A-B - Prószyński 1984a. Atlas rysunków diagnostycznych mniej znanych Salticidae (Araneae). Zeszyty Naukowe Wyższej Szkoły Rolniczo-Pedagogicznej, Siedlce: 70, 79, C - ©Photo T. Szuts, P4 - Maddison, W. P., Bodner, M. R. & Needham, K. M. (2008). Zootaxa 1893: 52, f. 5. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy
.

Gen. Saraina Wanless & Clark, 1975
Type species Saraina rubrofasciata (3 recognizable species).
See more species at Saraina-Q+M

A-E - Saraina rubrofasciata.
SOURCE. Szuts T., Scharff N. 2005. Acta zool. Acad. Sci. Hungar. 51: 366-368, f 5a-g, 6a-c .. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy
.

Gen. Tarne Peckham, Peckham, 1901
Type species Tarne dives(1 recognizable species).
See more species at Tarne-Q+M

A-D - Tarne dives.
SOURCE. A-B - Proszynski 1987. Atlas ...: 106,C-D - Wesolowska, Edwards 2012. Ann. zool.: 62(4): 759, f 88–94, 129. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy
.

Thiratoscirtus Simon, 1886
Type species Thiratoscirtus patagonicus (17 recognizable species).
See more species at Thiratoscirtus-Q+M

A - Thiratoscirtus patagonicus : B - same, type specimen and original label, C-E - African specimens: palp. epigyne and general appearance.
SOURCE. Galiano 1963b. Physis, 23 (66): 457-458, t. 39, f 11-14, ©Photo Szuts.. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy
.

COMMENT: we owe to Dr. T. Szuts discovery and proving that T., patagonicus is in fact an African species, closely related to other African species, and that its original label was mixed up.
Diversity of palps and epigyne as well as external appearance of preserved specimens of several exemplary species of Thiratoscirtus: F, K, P - Thiratoscirtus patagonicus, G, L, Q - Thiratoscirtus mastigophorus, H, M, R-S - Thiratoscirtus gambari, I, N - Thiratoscirtus atakpa, J, O - Thiratoscirtus torquatus, T - live Thiratoscirtus[?] sp.
SOURCE. Wesołowska, Edwards 2012. Ann. zool.: 62(4): 759-760, f 95–96; 762-763, f 102–107, 131; 759-760, f 95–96. K, P - ©Photo Szuts., T - ©PhotoMaddison 2015. Journal of Arachnology. 43: 231–292, f. 123.
Wiśniewski, Wesołowska 2013. ©Genus 24(2): 252-260, f 1-13. Wesołowska Russel-Smith, 2011. Ann. zool. 61(3): 601, f 173-184, 250, 251; 606, 197-198..T - 2015. Journal of Arachnology. 43: 231-292, f. 123. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy
.

COMMENT. The above row of diagnostic drawings of spermathecae and ducts of females of exemplary species form morphological series, which suggests their possible congeneric status. However male palps (in a higher row ) are incompatible and mishmatched with their supposed females, seems to represent different genera. The matching of these species (and of more, shown at Thiratoscirtus-Q+M) require therefore revision.

CONCLUSION

Facsimile of description of "subtribe Thiratoscirtina" - description does not contain positive diagniostic characters, apparently assembly of incidental genera!.
SOURCE. Facsimile of Bodner & Maddison (2012: 65: 221) Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 65: 237-238, f. B1-B2. All ©copyrights are retained by the original authors and copyright holders, used by their courtesy.

COMMENT. The description of Thiratoscirtine does not fulfill conditions of description of a new taxon set by ICZN, it does not gives diagnosis and description of properties of the taxon. Therefore it is invalid and cannot be corrected by a few simple additions of morphological charater. A full scale morphological revision is necessary.