[Title Page] [List  of Genera]  Comparison of Drawings]  [Regional  Keys to Genera] [Descriptions of New Taxa]
 [Geographical  Distribution] [Color Photographs] [Scanning Microphotographs] See also Catalogue of Salticidae  [ Title page]
  List of Genera - names beginning with: A  BC DEFG  HIJKL MN  OPQ RS  TUVWXYZ References:  Authors beginning with: A  BC DEFG  HIJKL 
MN  OPQ RS  TUVWXYZ[Key  for Salticidae of Levant][Simon's  1899-1902 Keys to the Salticid Groups]  
Salticidae: Diagnostic Drawings Library Supplement

by Jerzy Proszynski 1997

Keys for Identification of Salticidae

Salticidae Genera of Central Europe
by Jerzy Proszynski

Salticidae are medium size or small spiders, recognizable by unique anterior end of body broadly truncated, 
with 2 pairs of eyes on the face (anterior surface): large anterior median (AME), and smaller by half anterior lateral 
(ALE). Remaining two pairs of eyes (of II and III row) located on dorso-lateral edges of cephalothorax, delimit long
quadrangle called eye field (taking about half of cephalothorax); body compact, legs short or slightly longer, move 
by jumping and running; active hunters with complex behavior. European genera spun silky retreats and cocoons 
but not catching webs family Salticidae . 
 1.  Ant-like (abdomen constricted, petiolus long,not hidden beneath anterior part of abdomen) - ant like 2
 -Non ant-like - 4

2 (1). Medium size spiders - 3 
- Very small spider, cephalothorax not constricted, flat and low . FEMALE epigynum sclerotized, smooth,  openings located
 in mid-length, usually somewhat laterally, spermathecae very small; MALE Bulbus small pear shaped with a white 
membraneous spot corresponding with inflatable receptacle, embolus located anteriorly and short - Synageles    
 3 (2). Eye field    distinctly elevated above thorax, which is constricted; FEMALE epigynum - White membraneous area
 located posteriorly, divided medially by internal sclerotized channels, prominently visible through membrane, MALES small 
coil of seminal receptacle in anterior half of round bulbus, embolus making 2 or more loops around the bulbus, tibial apophysis
 very small and hook like bent - Myrmarachne 
- Eye field and    cephalothorax flat, on the same level: FEMALE Copulatory openings located anteriorly  and separated by
 median ridge stretching over anterior half of epigynum, 
channels are straight and thickwalled, like spermathecae; MALE Embolus broad, about 1/3rd width of bulbus, arising in mid 
length of bulbus from its swollen basal part  (ant like spider) - Leptorchestes    
 4(1) Very small species, shorter than 4 mm (except. some Sitticus caricis), (with length of eye field about 40 % in % of length 
of cephalothorax, cephalothorax low - about  45-60 % 1 at eyes III) - 5 
 - Medium size or large species, from 4 to 12 mm long - 7 
 5(4) Dark colored, tegument reflecting light in MALES whole body and abdomen with scutum, seminal  receptacle channel 
meandering, embolus coiled atop bulbus, in some species in a form of a thick fleshy process. FEMALES only cephalothorax 
is light reflecting but abdomen is soft and dark grey, height of cephalothorax about 45 %; epigynum weakly sclerotized usually
 with single white membraneous "window", more rarely two - oval or round, spermathecae round or oval, visible as darker 
spots behind the "window" (Very xerothermic occurence, Northernmost in Czech Rp.) - Chalcoscirtus    
- Tegument not reflecting light, MALE without abdominal scutum - 6 
 6 (5) Abdominal    pattern with dark chevrons on light background or entirely dark, sometimes also with a few pairs of small 
light dots, cephalothorax broader than eyes III, eye field about 45 %, cephalothorax slightly higher - 60 %). MALE 
embolus coiled atop bulbus (sometimes around hollow pit or coiled hidden within that pit), seminal receptacle channel 
meandering forming broad loops. FEMALE epigynum like in Chalcoscirtus - their separation uncertain, always require 
preparation of epigynum; (common Euophrys frontalis in forest litter or mosses) - Euophrys ; Pseudeuophrys
- Abdominal pattern    form a delicate dark network on light background, connected with thin median  chevrons, cephalothorax
 broadest among the three genera - its width at eyes III 76 %, low (45% . MALE Embolus making short coil on the side of 
bulbus, with smallprotuberance inside covered with spikes (reticulatus, robustus and valentulus). FEMALE epigynum with two
 grooves surrounded by sclerotized black rims instead of membraneous "windows". N. reticulatus - common species living
 in forest  litter or mosses)  - Neon   (ATTENTION - rayi DIFFERENT] 
- MALE with short apical embolus atop long fleshy triangular trunk, tibial apophysis short. FEMALE  epigynum weakly 
sclerotized depression between bent rims, but without posterior  rim, arching anteriorly, spermathecae spherical, posterior 
with long thin channels laterally, openings under anterior rim  (Oriental genus penetrating Eastern 
Palaearctics, P. castriesiana has Pliocene  relict populations in S Europe )  - Phintella
 7 (4) - Palpal organ and epigynum resembling Euophrys; but MALE with fringe of black setae along tibia and metatarsus III; 
FEMALE abdomen with scattered, small, dark dots, epigynum with windows extending over the whole length of epigynum (two 
Mediterranean species Saitis barbipes + tauricus) - Saitis   
- Palpal organ and epigynum different from Euophrys - 8 
 8 (7) Cephalothorax  broad - 9 
- Cephalothorax narrow with sides more or less parallel - 12 
 9 (8) Eye field relatively long, takes about half of length of cephalothorax, broadest at eyes III, eyes at edges of dorsal surface 
- 10 
- Eye field distinctly shorter than half of cephalothorax, it sides approximatively parallel, narrower than cephalothorax, 
which is high, somewhat cone shaped, with narrow eye  field atop, its basal outline almost circular, usually swollen beneath 
eyes III. epigynum with white anterior window, narrow and square, coiled membraneous channels. Palpal organ with bulbus 
round with triangular flap lik protuberance, twice encircled by embolus. (Widespread species, occuring from Oriental Region,
 Africa to Mediterranean, in Europe only in the South) - Thyene  imperialis  
 10(9) Posterior slope of cephalothorax broad and steep, margin of abdomen extends above posterior  part of thorax, 
particularly striking in MALES, surface  of carapace rough, light reflecting, abdomen broader than cephalothorax. Eye field
 broadening posteriorly  and taking longer than half of flat dorsal surface of cephalothorax. MALE embolus making tight 
transversal coil atop bulbus, but seminal receptacle duct does  not make large loops. FEMALE copulatory openings in anterior
 median part of pit with surrounding rim unsclerotized, channels running medially posteriorwards and making coils in the 
posterior part of the pit - Ballus  
- Posterior slope of cephalothorax narrowing and gently sloping, surface of carapace smooth, abdomen  almost black, often
 with with pairs of white spots. MALE bulbus round, slightly  flattened apically, or transversally oval, with embolus arising 
lateraly and  making small bent. FEMALE anterior half of epigynae white,  membraneous, oval, with prominent vaginal 
sclerotized roof in the middle - Bianor 
11 - Abdominal  pattern consists of pairs of transverse marginal whitish spots on darker, reddish  or greenish background. 
MALE bulbus bag shaped with twin sclerotized processes, short, atop white apical pad. FEMALE epigynum copulatory 
openings located anteriorly,  often in a distinct semilunar groove. (Live on pine trees: D. hastatus on  young pines, D. rudis 
on pine crowns) - Dendryphantes    
- Abdominal pattern  consists of pairs of marginal darker spots on whitish background. MALE embolus long, gently bent, 
arising anterolaterally on anterior bulbus. FEMALE copulatory  openings located antero-laterally, but not in a semilunar 
groove, channels converging  posteriorwards, scleroti zation of the epigynum less striking - Macaroeris 
 12(8) Cephalothorax    low and long, legs I strikingly larger than II-IV, particularly in MALES - 13  
- Cephalothorax    high, if legs I larger then not so strikingly - 15 
- Profile of cephalothorax    high, body "hairy" - 16 
- Cephalothorax    giving no clear impression of being either high or low, just "average" - 17 
 13(12) - A row  of stridulatory spines on tubercles under eyes lateral and corresponding microspines  prolaterally on femur I,
 tibia I swollen medially with reduced rudimentary spines or devoid of them, and with several long an thin, usually bent sensory
 hairs, small spider - Pseudicius
- Spider without row of stridulatory spines under eyes lateral, tibia not swollen, armoured with  normal spines - 14 
 14(12) Abdomen particularly long, MALE palpal organ with flattened lateral surface, epigynum  without external sculpture,
 FEMALE epigynum in a form of a smooth plate with  only openings, short initial channels pas into komplicated knots of long
 loops,  without distinct spermathecae. (Marpissa radiata lives on shores of waterbodies  and watercourses: retreats and
 cocoons located usually on: bent leaves of Phragmitis,  M. muscosa on bark of pine tree trunks)  - Marpissa 
-- Abdomen not only long but also very narrow . FEMALE epigynum in a form of a smooth plate  with only single median 
openings or shallow depressions  (Mediterranean, farther North only along sea beaches of Atlantic and North Sea ) - 
Marpissa nivoyi  
- FEMALE epigynum  in a form of a smooth plate, with copulatory openings hidden under posterior  edge of epigynum, that 
edge is carved into two bays separating a mendian "promontory"  in a form of a small triangle, short cannals run from the 
sides of triangle  anteriorwards and turns into short, coiled sclerotized spermathecae, translucent by tegument as dark spots 
(Mediterranean, reported also from reeds on shores of Neusiedlersee in Austria ) -  Mendoza canestrini   
- Body not as long  15 
15(12) Cephalothorax usually with longitudinal light and dark stripped pattern along thorax and on abdomen, copulatory organs
 in MALE of "Aelurillus" type (bulbus relatively large oval, flattened - at least apically, embolus hidden beneath it with only tip 
protruding from under anterior edge, palpal tibia apophysis always bifurcated, rami separated by "U" shape grove. In 
FEMALES posterior openings (large and prominent located posteriorly, either medially or near posterolateral angle of 
epigynum) and coiled spermathecae, medial, with internal convoluted chambers. Living on sand. - Phlegra 
- Similar to Phlegra,  but body uniformly dark, without stripes or chevron mark on the eye field. MALE  ventral apophysis
narrow and slightly bent laterally, FEMALE epigynum with openings  near posterior corners, copulatory channel running straight, 
then bent, spermathecae  convoluted median.(On sunny, warm rocky slopes) - Asianellus 
- Cephalothorax  apears higher than in Phlegra, no striped pattern (in MALES usually with  whitish or silver chevron mark on 
the eye field); palpal organ with ventral  tibial apophysis triangular, separated from the dorsal apophysis by "V" shape grove. 
FEMALES: epigynum with two "wings" - sclerotized diagonal edges, spermathecae in a form of complicated sclerotized 
chambers. On warm sandy grounds or sunny slopes - Aelurillus    
 16(12) Profile of cephalothorax triangular, with eye field sloping forward, eyes III area forming  the highest part and posterior
 slope begining right beyond the eye field, tarsi  I-II with scopulae, retrolateral margin of chelicerae and tooth not developped, 
 prolateral one with a thin sclerotized edge ending with a small tooth pointed  forward. FEMALE epigynum highly sclerotized 
with openings located anteriorly,  median part elevated, triangular posterior rim pushed inside abdomen. MALE pedipalpal 
femur  halfcrescent and broad, often with small ventral protuberance, embolus  always folowed by conductor.(Living on sand,
 cryptically colored) - Yllenus    
- Profile of cephalothorax  rounded, colouration dull greyish with ill defined lighter spots, palpal organ  and internal structure 
of epigynum characteristic - Carrhotus    
- FEMALES and immature MALES black with two long white spots on abdomen, sometimes two regular parallel  white lines;
 in MALES abdomen red with longitudinal black streak encircled by a thin white margin.Very common in Mediteranean, in 
C Europe on isolated xerothermic spots. FEMALE Only roofs of copulatory openings are sclerotized and form sharp triangle 
in the anterior part of epigynum, followed by broad channels running  posteriorwards, remaining part of epigynum not 
sclerotized and covered by long dense setae MALE Embolus very long, posterior half of bulbus makes long narrow 
protuberance bent under angle - Philaeus    
- Dark median serrated abdominal streak on light narrow background margins and sides dark; lateral    protuberance on 
bulbus, embolus arising in the 5 o'clock position, encircling  3/4th of bulbus, tibial apophysis long, diagonal indistinctly 
broadened terminally; epigynum oval with bent slits, broad membraneous channels and small sclerotized spermatheca 
(Mediterranean species, with numerous relatives in Mediterranean, S Palaearctics as well as arid Africa, Near East and 
Oriental Region) - Mogrus 
 17(12) - Abdomen  uniformly colored, with or without white pattern - 18 
- Abdomen with  irregular dark lines, or mosaic of dark, brown or grey spots and patches of  various sizes, with or without 
white pattern - 19
- Abdomen with broad median light longitudinal streak, posteriorly with a pair of lateral spots and a few chevrons, extended 
anteriorly by light thoracal streak, in some forms reaching eyes I; bulbus expanded laterally with short bent embolus anteriorly;
epigynum sclerotized with posterior median groove; large or medium size spider  (Widespread, pantropical genus, one
 species occuring also in the Mediterranean [but several in Israel], locally in S Europe, in C Europe in hot houses) 
- Plexippus 
- Striking bright coloration (particularly in MALE): cephalothorax and abdomen anteriorly pink, posteriorly black (fig.); palpal 
organ with anterior embolus running around anaterior and lateral edge of bulbus (typical for Spartaeinae) and long articulating
tibial apophysis , epigynum characteristic shield with sclerotized edge, spherical spermathecae and anteriorl arches of channels
( Mediterranean species, related Oriental species penetrating S Palaearctics) - Cyrba algerina 
18(17) Abdomen uniformly black irridescent blue, violet or green, light reflecting due to colourless scales, in some species 
one or more pairs of small white marginal spots and a semicrescent anterior line, legs often yellow, medium - small spiders. 
MALE pedipalpal femur with large horn like protuberance (single, bifurcated or trifurcated).  FEMALE epigynum with either 
single or twoseparate sclerotized depression round or transversally oval, sometimes partially or entirely surrounded by 
an elevated  rim, copulatory openings usually located laterally or, more rarely posteromarginally, or hidden under rim, with 
channels and spermathecae short and simple - Heliophanus  
- Abdomen dark  with pairs of transversal or diagonal white stripes or their rudiments ("zebra spider") but no median line, in 
MALES chelicerae overgrown. MALE palpal organ with large and broad apophysis, bag shaped bulbus and short embolus. 
FEMALE  epigynal depression extended by posterior elongate part, sometimes anteriorly  hidden under a roof like rim, 
channels and spermathecae more complicated than in Heliophanus - Salticus 
- Abdomen black with contrasting white line, continuous or interrupted, in some species there are one or two pairs of 
diagonal white lines marginally and thick anterior line, on cephalothorax in some species white spots behind eyes III and 
median white line. MALE Bulbus oval with embolus usually bifurcated, tibial apophysis supported on some kind of swelling
of cymbium (in P. tripunctatus three swellings, apophysis is grown into wall of cymbium) FEMALE Entire epigynum 
sclerotized with median ridge separating two semicircular grooves, location of vaginal opening  varies from anterior to 
posterior in various species - Pellenes
19(17) Abdomen  with pairs of dark diagonal lines, usually on darkish or even entirely black  background giving spiders dull 
blackish appearance, sometimes with white marginal  lines on abdomen and sides of cephalothorax. Relatively large spider 
with characteristic genital organs. MALE Bulbus large - round, oval or narrowing  posteriorly, embolus relatively broad, 
protruding from under anterior median angle of bulbus, apophysis of medium length or longer. FEMALE anterior half of 
epigynum white membraneous, the posterior being strongly sclerotized (in some speces with postero-laterl sclerotized pockets)
 in E. laetebunda reduced to narrow posterior rim - Evarcha  
- Abdomen with  mosaic dark, brown or grey spots and patches of various sizes, usually with a pair of median white spots 
slightly behind mid-length of abdomen, as well as some chevrons - 20

20(19)  Genital organs of two related types, very characteristic cheliceral dentition: retrolateral margin of chelicerae not 
developed, a tooth with several conical cusps on prolateral margin. In a few species no white spots, males of some high 
mountain species have abdomen black, bissected by white longitudinal line - in Europe only Italian Alpine Sitticus longipes]
a) FEMALE epigynum with a central pit under whose sclerotized rim copulatory openings are hiden, channels running  
outwards from the pit.  MALE bulbus round, ventrally flattened, with embolus  arising laterally or basally and making 
either half circle arround bulbus or encircling it once or twice, with characteristic loop of seminal receptacle canal, tibial 
apophysis small or very large. Sitticus  floricola and related 
b) FEMALE epigynum  with copulatory openings in a form of spaced diagonal slits in the mid length  of surface of epigynum,
form single bends in the posterior half  of epigynum. MALE - bulbus elongate oval or bag shaped, embolus slightly longer than 
bulbus arising usually at its latero basal angle, small tibial apophysis  - Sitticus distinguendus and related 
c) FEMALE epigynum  in a form of simple depression, followed posteriorly by two less sclerotized  lobes, spermathecae - 
centrally located sclerotized simple chambers without channels. MALE bulbus round, embolus short and thick arising laterally,
 apophysis large - Sitticus  pubescens 

- Pairs of white abdominal spots larger, single conical  retrolateral cheliceral tooth, genital organs dif ferent, in MALE cymbium dorsally 
 with large white spot( numerous Mediterranean species only)  - Habrocestum    
- Male pedipalpal tibia long, with long mane of white setae, genical organs of different type; single bicusps retrolateral cheliceral tooth, 
 (cosmopolitic species in warm countries,  in C Europe in greenhouses). - Hasarius    
This English Language version of the original Key, written by myself,  was a basis for abbreviated and modified version published in German 
Language as a chapter "Salticidae Springspinnen" by J. Proszynski, in edited by S. Heimer and W. Nentwig: "Spinnen Mitteleuropas", 
Verlag Paul Parey, 1991. The Editors omitted my name at the heading of the chapter.  Made accessible  for Internet with permission of Verlag Paul Parey. 
Copyright © for the  page by J. Proszynski , 2000.