RETURN TO DATABASE - ALTERNATIVE CLASSIFICATION
SALTICIDAE OF THE WORLD - 0-INDEX of Genera - 01-FOREWORD & KEY to groups of genera! - 02-Comparison - HISTORICAL classification of Aelurilleae - 03-AEURILLINES - 04-AMYCINES- 05-AMYCOIDA VARIA - 06-ASTIAINES - BALLINES - 07-BELIPPINES - 08-CHRYSILLINES - 09-COCALODINES - 10-COLONINES[=Thiodinines] - 11-DENDRYPHANTINES - 12-DIOLENINES - EUODENINES - 13-EUOPHRYINES-PART 0: Introduction-Diversity - 13-EUOPHRYINES-PART 1: Admestina-Donoessus - 14-EUOPHRYINES-PART 2: Echeclus-Pystira - 15-EUOPHRYINES-PART 3: Rhyphelia-Zenodorus - 16-EUPOAINES - 17-EVARCHINES - 18-FOSSILS - 19-HABRONATTINES - 20-HARMOCHIRINES - 21-HELIOPHANINES - 22-HISPONINES - 23-HYLLINES - 24-ICIINES - 25-LAPSIINES - 26-LIGONIPEINES - 27-LYSSOMANINES - 28-MENEMERINES - 29-MYRMARACHNINES - 30-NOTICIINES - 31-PELLENINES - 32-PSEUDICIINES - 33-SIMAETHINES - 34-SITTICINES - 35-SPARTAEINES - 35a-SYNAGELINES - 36-THIRATOSCIRTINAE - 37-YAGINUMAELLINES - 38-YLLENINES - 39-UNCLASSIFIED TEMPORARY
APPENDICES -AP1-Simon's classification - AP2-Petrunkevich synthesis-1928 - AP3-Bonnet's list of subfamilies - AP4-Prószynski's revision of subfamilies 1976 - AP5-Prószynski - summary of results - AP6-Aelurillus black & gray - AP7-Maddison's views on Salticidae phylogeny 2014 - MS1-Omoedus synonymy

MADDISON'S ALTERNATIVE: Tittle_pg Index Introduction Agoriini Aelurillina Asemoneinae Amycini Amycoida-incertae sedis Astiini Ballini Baviini Bredini Chrysillini Cocalodini Dendryphantina Euophryini-1 Euophryini-2 Euophryini-3 Eupoinae Freyina Gophoini Harmochirina Hasariini Hisponinae Holcolaetina Huriini Itatina Lapsiini Leptorchestini Lyssomaninae Marpissina Mopsini Myrmarachnini Nannenini Neonini Onomastinae Plexippina Salticini Sarindini Scopocirini Simaethina Simonellini Sitticini Spartaeina Synagelina Thiodinini Thiratoscirtina Tisanibini Viciriini Salticidae-incertae sedis

Monograph of the Salticidae (Araneae) of the World 1995-2015. Part I: Introduction to alternative classification of Salticidae.

Jerzy Prószyński
Gen. Toxeus Koch C.L., 1846 gen. reinstated (10 species)
Version October 10th, 2017.
Sources and permissions of illustrations, also references, are displayed in the IInd part of the monograph http://www.peckhamia.com/salticidae/

Type genus Myrmarachne .
Interactive index Toxeus )

Gen. Toxeus Koch C.L., 1846 gen. reinstated (10 species)

Type species Toxeus maxillosus Koch C. L. 1846 [syn. Myrmarachne maxillosa (Koch C.L., 1846)].
Nomenclatorical note. Genus name "Toxeus" was introduced by Koch C.L. in 1846 in combination with specific name "maxillosus", subsequently used as synonymic combinations with five other specific names, by Thorell, Pickard-Cambridge F., and one Smith (1907). Names of two taxa of the family level, derived from Toxeus - Toxeae and Toxeinae were proposed by Pickard-Cambridge F. in 1900. None were used after 1907 in primary literature (Bonnet 1957, 1959: 2997-3014, 4663). Progres in knowledge of Myrmarachne, especially in internal structures of epigyne, suggests now splitting of the genus Myrmarachne into several smaller genera, one of which characterized by features of Myrmarachne maxillosa, so as a name for that genus is accepted reinstated name Toxeus, still available according to Edwards (2013, Peckhamia 110.1: 7).
DIAGNOSIS. "Pipes-like" sclerotized spermathecae, stretching parallel along median axis of epigyne, without transverse detour, usually pressed to each other along part of their course, are either thin, gradually slightly dilating along their course in terminal half (located in anterior part of epigyne), with internal spines in the dilated part, as in T. cuneatus (Badcock, 1918), or making asymmetrical terminal chamber (as in T. aureoniger), with long internal spines. They differs from spermathecae in Myrmage gedongensis comb. n. (Edmunds & Proszynski, 2003) which retain the same diameter along their whole length, devoid of swellings, and covered internally by similar minute spines. Posterior (proximal) ends of "pipes" are diverging, making room for the pocket, located between them. Membranous copulatory ducts, visible after staining, make irregular large coils, running from almost indiscernible slit-like copulatory openings at median septum of epigyne, towards beginning of spermathecae, near posterior rim of epigyne. Palps have almost circular bulbus, resembling Emertonius by lack of additional thin loop of spermophor, encircled with coils of embolus inside semi translucent sheath. Spermophor broad, runs along margin of bulbus. Tibial apophysis indistinctly double bent, but not twisted screw like. Chelicerae in both sexes have developed ventral lobe, extending their height, none the less, male chelicerae are long, but shorter than in Myrmarachne, with two rows of tiny teeth, fang is long. Size of specimens medium, some species have total length 7-8 mm. Body compact, constrictions variable, in some species indistinct, with thoracal part depressed, abdomen in some species almost round. ATTENTION: spermathecae of some Toxeus are almost identical with some Emertonius, while their external appearance is strikingly different!
Drawings below are integral part of the definition.
Composition. The following species are transferred from genus Myrmarachne MacLeay, 1839: Toxeus aureoniger (Edmunds & Prószyński, 2003), comb. n.; T. bicuspidatus (Yamasaki, 2012); T. cuneatus (Badcock, 1918), comb. n.; T. gorontaloensis (Yamasaki, 2012, comb. n. [reinstated]; T. hirsutipalpus (Edmunds & Proszynski, 2003), comb. n.; T. jajpurensis (Prószyński, 1992), comb. n.; T. latithoracicus (Yamasaki & Huang J. 2012), comb. n.; T. magnus (Saito, 1933), comb. n.; T. maxillosus Koch C. L. 1846.

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Toxeus maxillosus comb. n. 114 - spermatheca and ducts, 115-119 - details of female, 120-127 details of male Yamasaki, Ahmad 2013. Zootaxa 3710 (6): 538-541, f 30A–G, 31A–E, 42A–F. © 2013 Magnolia Press +b) ©Photo H.K. Tang and Marcus Ng. By courtesy.
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Toxeus globosus . Wanless 1978a. : 33, (1): 99, figs 61b-c, g, 62d-e + Zabka 1985. Ann. zool., 39, 11: 246, ff. 328-331. By courtesy.
Toxeus hirsutipalpi comb. n. Edmunds, Proszynski. 2003.Bull. Br. Ar. .
Toxeus cuneatus comb. n. Edmunds, Proszynski 2003. Bull. British Arachn. Soc. 12 (7): f. 56-63. By courtesy.
Toxeus epigealis comb. n. Yamasaki, Edwards 2013. Flores. ZooKeys 299: 7-11, f 20-32.. By courtesy.
Toxeus grossus (Edmunds & Prószyński, 2003) comb. n. Edmunds, Proszynski. 2003. Bull. British Arachn. Soc. 12 (7): 13, f. 69-79. By courtesy.
Toxeus jajpurensis: Prószyński, 1992 India: Orissa: Ann. zool. 1992b: 44(9): 87, f 90-92. By courtesy.
b)
Toxeus bicuspidatus + gorontaloensis Yamasaki 2012b Ann. Mus. civ. Storia nat. Giacomo Doria: 104: 153-161, f 13-19 +b) 163-165, f 28-31. By courtesy.
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A new hypothesis on matching sexes based on geographic distribution. a) Comparison of M. bicuspidata and M. gorontaloensis [see above] b) environment and geographic location where assumedly ONLY THIS SINGLE SPECIES LIVES. Dr. G.B. Edwards writes: "The description of separate new species for male and female individuals with similar morphology, especially if they have similar locality data, is untenable …., as it … hyper-inflate the species count …, giving a false sense of extant biodiversity. Geographical data male and females collected on Mt. Tilongkabila, Gorontalo Province, Sulawesi. Elevation given for females (800m, 1200 m) but not given for male. Morphological data. Male and females have a similar overall appearance, for example, the coxal color pattern is relatively similar. Yamasaki (2012: 165) states “M. gorontaloensis might be the female of M. bicuspidatus [sic] because they share a very unique shape of the thorax. However, M. gorontaloensis does not possess the protuberance on its carapace, which is a diagnostic character of M. bicuspidatus [sic].” As first reviser, I choose M. bicuspidata Yamasaki 2012 as the name of the species; M. gorontaloensis Yamasaki 2012 becomes a NEW SYNONYM." Edwards,2013b A philosophy and methodology for matching opposite sexes of one species, exemplified by a new synonym in Myrmarachne (Araneae: Salticidae). Peckhamia 1, 10. By courtesy.
Toxeus latithoracicus comb. n.+b) shelfordi Yamasaki & Huang J. 2012. Acta Arachnologica .
b)
Toxeus maxillosus comb. n. +b) Toxeus magnus (Saito, 1933) comb. n. . Yamasaki, Ahmad 2013. Zootaxa 3710 (6): 538-541, f 30A–G, 31A–E, 42A–F. © 2013 Magnolia Press +b) Huang J. 2004. MSc Thesis, National Sun Yat-sen University, Taiwan, on line: 44-48, t 17-18. By courtesy.
Toxeus aureoniger : Edmunds, Proszynski. 2003. Bull. British Arachnol. Soc. 12 (7): 321-322, figs 117-121. By courtesy.

Characters of groups Myrmarachneae and Ligonipedeae by Simon 1901-1903

Copy of Simon's 1901: 390 key to Salticidae Pluridentati.
Translated by H.D. Cameron and D.P. Wijesinghe. PECKHAMIA: 3, 1.
Definition of the subfamily Myrmarachninae by Petrunkevich 1928, with list of Simon's 1901 groups synthesized into it