Main links: Title page Introduction & guides INDEXES_chapters_&_genera Open PDF printout of this file

Salticidae (Araneae) genera of the world
- an atlas*

(unfinished manuscript)
Version September 7th, 2020

by Jerzy Prószyński
Professor Emeritus, Museum and Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences,
ul. Wilcza 63, 00-679 Warsaw, POLAND

After first thirty years of work, first visit in the MCZ-Harvard-1987

ABSTRACT. The aim of this paper is to display, within seconds, the most useful diagnostic characters of 641 recognizable genera of Salticidae, on the background of the whole diversity of the family. There is a possibility to compare them, also within seconds, with diversity of ca. 4800 recognizable species of these genera (which can be further followed by network of links to rich data of relational database including: geographical distribution, contents of collections, contents of publications, etc). The aim of grouping these genera is not to demonstrate phylogeny, or other fancy schemes, but they are assembled by similarities in palps, spermathecae and ducts for testing practical identification. Since my research are "..nothing but scientific malpractice" (see motto below), this paper will be read only by the most intelligent and independent thinking arachnologists, who will understand perfectly the second bottom of this text.
The unusual names of groups and genera used in this paper are intended to facilitate temporarily experimental shifting of genera in search for the most clear expression of similarities, they can be distinguished from those commonly used by being written in CAPITAL LETTERS and with different endings indicating their ranks. Some of these groups may signalize evolutionary affinities, but aims of the paper do not include establishing formal phylogeny. The author trusts that intelligent reader will have no trouble of separating significant conclusions from mere hypotheses. Publication of Kropf & twelve intellectuals, 2019 stimulated epidemics of changing names of genera and species alignments, with some genera being listed under three different names already - it will apparently take some time until some sort of order will return. To avoid increasing chaos I freeze nomenclature used in this work with date 10 July 2018 (with a few exceptions), names and their versions introduced later in the arachnological literature could be found with help of the World Spider Catalog (however, synonyms listed by editors and their nomenclatorical comments require caution and, in many cases, revision).
The material presented in this paper is very incomplete and often of poor quality, not because of bad choice by the author, but resulting from incompleteness of data in literature. The readers are exhorted to not believe any data here, or in the literature, without verifying them, the data not sufficiently documented may be very well fantasies of their authors, or be based on insufficient information. This papers contains delimitations of some new taxa, and some new concepts, they may become available when next published in regular and accepted periodicals, and preferably signed by new authors, not discriminated by competitors. Reacting to suggestions from article of intellectuals quoted below in the Motto, this work disregards some less important traditional customs of paper editing (the most important being omission of authors and data in the scientific names of species - an experiment intended to reduce detrimental "name hunting" and endless synonymizing of names).
Finally I must apologize for the unfinished form of the present manuscript - I am not sure whether my time left will suffice to complete it, so I am making it available as it is now, and intend to complement it and edit later in the Internet. I may add that the work is delayed by some ten months as a consequence of joyous publication of the Kropf & twelve intellectuals, 2019. Everything has its prices - the delay and uncertainties of completing this survey it is one of these.

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 Chapter 0
Introduction and Guide to Genera

Motto: [papers of Prószyński] “…should be ignored by the community” because “…brings nothing but chaos in salticid systematicsand “…this is nothing but scientific malpractice"... -------- see - Kropf & twelve intellectuals, `2019

Motto 2 : “… I think the Kropf et al paper was both unnecessary and wrong, but a fruitful discussion will not emerge from countering a personal attack with another personal attack, that is why I wrote “not exactly gentle” when I could have equally said something like “defamatory”. …   In my view, the Kropf et al paper is bad manners and I wish you can ignore the downsides of it, take the criticism seriously where it is justified, and concentrate your energy on producing further good work." .................... RESPECTED ARACHNOLOGIST, ........................................................................................................................................................................ (personal letter, dated 2019-05-10 ).

Motto 3 : “…. “… The warning  that Prószyński’s proposal will cause  “confusion and chaos in future salticid systematics"  seems much exaggerated …. To accuse  Prószyński of  a “disregard of ICZN rules” … requires a rather  creative interpretation of his argument:  Prószyński’s assessment has to be read in the context of his preceding fifty-five-year track record in jumping spider taxonomy…. Contrary to ... Kropf et al.  Prószyński is not committing any “basic  errors” here, he is playing his own game … is fully entitled to his position, and his ideas, the legacy and summary of a lifetime of experience, can still be considered  an inspiration  and provocation for future work, if only  by highlighting that, despite  major progress (Maddison 2015, Maddison et al. 2017) we still are far from full understanding of salticid phylogeny… Pószyński’s informal groups will be only of the  most limited interest… as condensed summaries  of  taxonomic intuition acquired of a lifetime of work in the field, against which to test modern classifications".......................... Breitling_2019_How_NOT_to_conduct_debate".

Operational suggestions - how to use this atlas

This paper implements practical solutions of the Pragmatic Classification: clarity of documentation and quick and effective searching of identificatory characters. The diagnostic characters are expressed as precise drawings and photographs, to be compared directly with features of observed specimens (living or preserved) or with existing illustrations. It is hoped that direct comparison will appear the quickest method of orientation in enormous material of 641 recognizable genera (as listed in this work) representing diversity of ca. 4800 recognizable species (the comparative charts of the latter are accessible in the Salticidae Database at or by links at each genus entry).
Practically, by clicking on icone link on title page of this "Salticidae (Araneae) genera of the world - an atlas" part of Database (similar arrangements work in other parts of Database) you enter the first page, with line of links at the top - click at "INDEXES_chapters_&_genera to find INDEX of links to all genera and all chapters - these yield, within seconds, characters of each genus. (In the following INDEX for ca. 4800 species in older DATABASE 2016, links marked Q [for QUICK] operate particularly fast, links M purport to show classification proposed by Maddison, 2015, to see these you can use also links at each genus entry in the present work). And these could be followed by wealth of information in the PART II relational MSQL database).
Parallel way of searching for identificatory characters is the following Guide in the present Introduction & guides chapter below - each set of pictures has a link leading to chapters containing genera with indicated similarities, inside chapter you have to scroll screen (again with some help of links) until find the most similar genus entry. Some characters are ambiguous (there are no better in the literature) or misleading, which may require repeated scrolling of other possibly relevant chapters.
This work experiments with combinations of characters and rearrangements of placements of genera for finding the most convincing expression of similarities and for easiest identification. Since rigid nomenclature of genera and other group names, imposed by ICZN rules, as interpreted by Word Spider Catalog, hampers experimenting with more transparent arrangement of the system, the Pragmatic Classification employs informal, temporary names of groups of genera (also of some genera) - ultimately translatable into future system of Salticidae, hopefully valid for centuries. Happily, informal treatment of work presented in the Internet gives some freedom of searching. These informal names are recognizable by being written in CAPITAL letters .
In my opinion identificatory system presented in this work contains many shortages, but ALL remaining systems are still worse. The user is invited to find by practice whether the above opinion is wrong.

----------------------------------------- *FOOTNOTE. Present paper constitutes partial publication of sections of the Internet "Monograph of Salticidae (Araneae) of the World 1995-2016", parts I & II by Prószyński (2016a, b), available at: and respectively. Permissions of illustrations used in this paper are displayed in the above mentioned Internet "Monograph ...". To ensure demanded uniformity of quotations taxonomic references are copied from the World Spider Catalog ver. 20.5, unfortunately not always consequently.

Family Salticidae (Araneae), distributed over continents and archipelagoes, differentiated during their long history by evolution and extinction, and over space by migrations, contains at present ca. 4800 recognizable species (out of 6186 nominal according to WSC, which include also unrecognizable, those figure changes daily), divided preliminarily into 641 recognizable genera (as listed in this work, WSC lists 647 including unrecognizable). These spiders are arranged into system of taxa for smooth storage and retrieval of relevant information, including diagnostic characters for taxa recognition. Such system covering all organisms, including also spiders, was initiated by Carl Linnaeus (Karl Linne) over 250 years ago. Nowadays scientific system of jumping spiders - Salticidae - is very complicated and is known in many versions, created and endlessly changed by competing authors. One of criteria of a good system is operational practicability, difficult to achieve when our knowledge is full of gaps, documentation of taxa is imprecise and unverifiable. Success of story writers depends from smoothness of reading of their works, so they are apt to enrich facts by imagination, to avoid inconvenient gaps. It is only natural that scientists try to cover weaknesses of their reasoning by somewhat similar solutions. However, in science mistreatment of facts is unpardonable. Taxonomists have right to receive clear texts, based on verified and verifiable characters.

The present work concentrates on recognition of genera, the most important, but also difficult, step in identification of Salticidae. Genera are defined by diagnostic characters of their "name bearer" - type species (in case on unavailability of type species - lost or unrecognizable, I use, temporarily, "representative species"of my choice). Genera consist of species, series or single, sharing diagnostic characters of their type species, differentiating gradually, but distinctly different ("morphological gap") from series of species belonging to other genera.
Species share, by definition, part of characters of their genus, their identification and separation is based on different kind of characters, of which most important seems to be color photographs of live specimens and genitalic features. Species are defined morphologically by diagnostic characters of their "name bearer" - type specimen, but ultimately by their biological properties, especially by ability of to mate and produce viable offspring. Species consist of a chain of local populations, sometime single (in cases or incipient or relict species) or numerous and variable, often distributed over whole continents.
Genera are most numerous taxa a taxonomist must dealt with, in addition characters of particular genera tends to be developed parallel in different evolutionary lines, in part due to influence of similar environmental pressures occurring in various parts of the world. Results of grouping of genera into taxa of higher rank depends of interpretation of importance of characters they are based on, so that is why there are so many variants of groupings. The present survey of genera is based on the Pragmatic Classification concept, a modern version of traditional classification with own aims and methodology, different from molecular phylogeny developed for Salticidae within last twenty years by Maddison and coauthors (see for example his paper of 2015). In spite of their autonomy both systems are mutually auxiliary "Hilfswissenschaftten" and understanding of their relationships may promote development of both.

Early trials to construct a system of Salticidae: A - genera arranged into three columns based on types of cheliceral dentition, with same characters repeated in each column - by Simon (1901-1903), modified by Petrunkevitch (1928), B - brilliant idea - lets' base system on palps structure - by Prószyński (1971).
SOURCE: Prószyński (1971) Arachnologorum Congressus Internationalis V. Brno: 213-217.

Male palps (examined and documented in standard comparative positions) became basic diagnostic feature of Salticidae, generally used in identificatory and classificatory procedures. In faunae consisting of small number of representatives of diversified genera, like that of Europe, palps can be convenient indicator of differences between species, however, they are less effective tools for identification of species in faunae of rich series of species. However they are convenient for separation of genera and groups of genera (subfamilies). Numerous examples of diagnostic usage of palp are shown further in the text of this survey their diversity in ALL recognizable species of each genus can be seen using links to Part I of the Salticidae Database - (see at headings to all genera).

In many Salticidae reliable identification and classification require examination of genitalic structures of BOTH SEXES (matching confirmed by biological observations, of course), classification by single sex leads to tentative-only conclusions.

Standard characters for females Salticidae, analogous to male palps, are internal structures of epigyne, consisting of copulatory ducts, spermathecae and some accompanying structures like sclerotized pocket (or a pair of pockets), membranous "windows" (or grooves in some) and sclerotized rims of "windows". In difference to palps, spermathecae and ducts are much more sensitive indicators of taxonomic position of species: they are stable within species, can be arranged into series of similar structures gradually differing from species to species. But, like color pattern, they could evolve parallely similar shapes in not related clades (see double spiral ducts in drawings E and F below), which calls for some caution in affinity interpretations. In difference to internal structures, external appearance of epigyne is insufficient for identification of larger faunae.

Diversity of internal structures of epigyne within family Salticidae on group of genera (subfamilial) level: A - Astia hariola, B - Echeclus sokoli, C - Dendryphantes hastatus, D - Emathis weyersi, E - Marusyllus hamifer, F - Marpissa pulla. SOURCES: see in relevant chapters of the text.
Diversity of internal structures of epigyne on genera level: within closely related genera of MYRMARACHNINES ( spermathecae "parallel pipes like") (transparent membranous ducts invisible on photographs because of wrong stain used): G - Myrmage gedongensis, H - Toxeus maxillosus, I - Myrmatheca alticephalon - spermathecae, J - MYRMAVOLA yamasaki, K - Myrmaplata turriformis - drawing showing membranous ducts. ©Photos by T. Yamasaki. SOURCES: see in relevant chapters of the text.

Diversity of internal structures of epigyne on species level (in a series of 106 species of recognizable Myrmarachne): L - Myrmarachne acromegalis, M - Myrmarachne assimilis, N - Myrmarachne biseratensis, O - Myrmarachne cornuta, P - Myrmarachne macrognatha, Q - Myrmarachne hanoi. ©Photos by T. Yamasaki. SOURCES: see in MYRMARACHNINES chapter of the text.

The placement of genera of into higher units (subfamilies, etc.) were attempted several times in the history, often clumsy and inconvenient in usage due to gaps in knowledge. These gaps were filled up by variety of characters of uncertain value, and "rounded up" by fantasies of numerous authors. In practice none of them was satisfactorily usable for identification of genera.
The Pragmatic Classification, developed by Prószyński on the basis of Salticidae Database 1995-2016, first proposed in papers of 2016a, 2017b and gradually improved since, concentrates on a few tested, tangible and noticeable morphological characters, precisely documented by drawings and photos.

Effective storage and retrieval of data pertaining to ca. 4800 recognizable species of Salticidae requires arrangement into organized hierarchical system of taxa, from families down to species. Since establishing practical system demands commanding knowledge of the whole fauna of Salticidae worldwide, which nobody commands as yet, the existing systems are trials, based on inadequate basis of data. Yet existing preliminary systems, starting from that by Simon (1901-1903), with subsequent partial amendments, are imposed by enterprising authors and editors as a sort of straight jacket, in part useful, in part stifling understanding and research. To have progress in searching for an adequate system, one need a freedom of verifying premises and experimenting with syntheses of newly acquired data. To facilitate such search, without destroying prematurely establishing traditions, the Pragmatic Classification invented temporary and informal grouping of genera. This survey of genera of Salticidae uses temporarily informal units SUPRAGROUP of genera, GROUP of genera (= subfamilies) and SUBGROUP of genera, with names recognizable from those used by other authors by being written in CAPITAL letters. The experimental classification could be finally translated into whatever system will be adopted in the future. Usage of individual system, even if limited to experimental only, provokes resistance and sharp exchange of views - full review of published different opinions on this case is available at

An interesting new approach, developed for Salticidae within last twenty years by Maddison (see for instance 2015) and his collaborators, is phylogeny based on gene sequencing, complemented by adopted elements of the Simon's system and various literature proposals contributed in world's literature since. The present work contains numerous links to grouping of genera in Maddison's system in the Salticidae Database (marked by letter "M" at each genus), short preliminary comparison of systems of Salticidae is given at - but that cannot pretend to be a final evaluation of the proposal. It seems to me, however, that there is deep difference in aims of purely identificatory system, like the Pragmatic Classification and the phylogeny Maddison' system, presumably addressed to arachnologists commanding identificatory experience acquired from other sources.

Guide to informal supragroups and groups of Salticidae genera

This chapter attempts to help in orientation in morphological diversity of ca. 4800 recognizable species of the world. User is advised to compare main characters (palps and spermathecae) of the identified specimen with exemplary drawings shown in the right column of the chart below, and then go to the chapters dealing with particular supragroups and groups of genera.

Symbols and links of supragroups
- examplary structures representing diversity within each group (see chart below)





not classified
"Pending placement"

Guide to informal groups of genera of Salticidae within supragroups

I - MALE. Embolus develops as direct extension of tegular tegument of bulbus, antero-lateral angle of spermatofor emerges parallel to embolus.
FEMALE. Spermathecae and ducts simple, both sclerotized.

















I - Informal supragroup





SOURCES of illustrations displayed in this GUIDE are quoted in relevant chapters, further in the text.
II - MALE. Embolus arises from bulbus (independently of tegulum and beneath it) and runs parallel to bulbus, in some cases encircling it. No visible central loop of spermatophor.
FEMALE. Internal structure of epigyne: ducts make complicated loops, in some genera soft walled, in other heavily sclerotized.

II - Informal supragroup





SOURCES of illustrations displayed in this GUIDE are quoted in relevant chapters, further in the text.

III - Cheliceral tooth usually comb-like (several cusps arising from mutual sclerotized basis) either on single cheliceral edge or both
MALE. Embolus arises from bulbus (as in the previous group), but spermophor makes distinct loop in the center of bulbus.
FEMALE. Spermathecae consist of two swellings, sometimes developed as chambers, ducts joining them at connector, narrower between swelling, ducts less sclerotized but not membranous, making loose loop or tight spiral.


III - Informal supragroup



SOURCES of illustrations displayed in this GUIDE are quoted in relevant chapters, further in the text.

IV - Majority of species display mimicry (sometimes over-interpreted) to various ants, or other insects, but in some genera that is not developed.
Delimited by exceptional internal structure of epigyne with striking pair of parallel, sclerotized "pipes"-like spermathecae, running medially along epigyne, with complicated membranous ducts (visible only if stained on cleared preparation) ,
MALE. Palps relatively uniform within groups - see respective drawings

IV - Informal supragroup



SOURCES of illustrations displayed in this GUIDE are quoted in relevant chapters, further in the text.
V - MALE. Embolus sitting on inflatable distal haematodocha (visible after expanding bulbus), which seems to increase nobility of embolus during insemination.*
FEMALE. Spermathecae and ducts differs in each group (see in respective chapters), ducts are generally hard but less sclerotized than spermathecae.

V - Informal supragroup EUOPHRYOIDA



*FOOTNOTE. Inflatable distal haematodocha was initially observed in DENDRYPHANTINES and EUOPHRYINES, now confirmed (or supposed, pending confirmation) in several groups of genera. It is associated with various secondary features (like coiled embolus and meandering spermatofor). Broad occurrence and diversity make it convenient structural character for delimiting group of genera. Parallel, its occurrence in one of the oldest genera known - Hispo, permits hypothesize that "distal-haematodochoida" may constitute a block of similar, possibly related genera of Salticidae.

SOURCES of illustrations displayed in this GUIDE are quoted in relevant chapters, further in the text.

These groups of genera do not share mutual characters, their placement is uncertain. For characters of particular groups - see relevant chapters.




VI - Genera not classified
into supragroup




SOURCES of illustrations displayed in this GUIDE are quoted in relevant chapters, further in the text.

VII - Eyes arranged into four rows in both sexes (not exclusive character of this group, sporadically in other groups, sometimes developed as intermediate state)
MALE - complicated palp structure
FEMALE - epigyne diverse, in some complicated, in other simple,
poorly known

VII - Informal supragroup
- NON[?]-Salticidae



SOURCES of illustrations displayed in this GUIDE are quoted in relevant chapters, further in the text.
VIII - Genera pending placement
because of insufficient morphological data.


See diagnostic drawings of these genera
in the chapter "Genera pending placement"


The above chart of samples of diagnostic characters of particular morphological groups of recognizable Salticidae is followed by 41 detailed chapters, accessible by clicking on links included above and designed to find individual genera by scrolling screen. Each genus can be reached also by clicking links provided in the subsequent chapter INDEXES_chapters_&_genera. Diagnostic characters of ALL recognizable species, prepared in Salticidae Database of 1995-2016, are accessible by links provided in entries of each genus. Each chapter has prepared PDF printout, which could be copied or printed, accessible by clicking link Open PDF printout of this file at the top line of each chapter.